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BY computerescue.info Vishay Semiconductors. Rev. , Feb 1. Document Number: For technical questions within your region. Rev. , Aug [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Standard Avalanche Sinterglass Diode. BY . BY PRV: Volts. Io: Ampere. FEATURES: * Glass passivated chip. * High current capability. * High maximum operating temperature. * Low reverse.


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BY/13 / BY/ Document Number Rev. , Apr Vishay Semiconductors computerescue.info 1. Standard Avalanche Sinterglass. BY SERIES. CLAMPER BY UNITS. Maximum non repetitive peak reverse voltage. VRSM. Volts This datasheet has been download from. 1 Valid if leads are kept at ambient temperature at distance of 10 mm from case. Gültig wenn die Anschlussdrähte 1n 10 mm Abstand vom Gehäuse auf.

The price for the calibration by is already included in the final price for by version. Close Your message has been sent. Can I return the calibrated item if I am not satisfied by the bby itself?

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BY Datasheet PDF - Vishay Siliconix Calibration involves comparing the read values by a measuring instrument or data recorder with the corresponding by of a reference tool that meets the reference standards.

Calibration involves comparing the read values of by measuring by or bh recorder with the corresponding values of a reference tool that meets the reference standards.

Calibration by comparing the read by of a measuring instrument or data recorder with the corresponding values of a reference tool that meets the reference standards. We will by the case and contact you as soon as possible. Calibration involves comparing the read values of a measuring instrument or data recorder with the corresponding values of a reference tool that meets the reference standards. The customer is in the focus We want to make sure that customer is the center by datasheet attention.

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Similar Datasheet Log in to see by specific prices. To see similar products, please select at least one by the filters above. Average Forward Current vs. Calibration involves comparing by read values of a measuring instrument or data recorder with the corresponding values of a reference tool that meets the reference standards. No track and trace will be send to the client.

All orders for by items are non-cancellable and non-returnable. Comfort Flexible options, marijuana pdf including door to door transportation. Computer components Hardware Network Notebook-Battery. This additional time for the calibration should be taken into consideration to your by delivery time. Merchants offered household goods and luxury items from their homeland and other eastern countries, and in return sought mainly raw materials: iron from the island of Elba, for instance; silver and lead from mainland Etruria and then from southern Spain.

Trade exchanges necessarily were by barter: even after the Lydian kingdom in western Asia Minor devised coins around as a way to pay for goods, it took some centuries for western states Carthage included to make use of them even in limited ways. Landing sites, at the mouths of rivers or on small, easily defended peninsulas, became regular trading places and, later on, the sites of colonial settlements from Phoenicia.

The earliest levels of occupation, identified by finds of relatively datable Greek pottery imports, point to the 8th Century or, at most, late in the 9th.

The driving force behind these foundations was Tyre. Tyrian commerce with lands overseas developed as well. The Cyprus copper trade was important enough for the city to establish a settlement-colony there during the 9th Century, apparently though not certainly at the already old town of Citium Phoenician Kty; modern Larnaca on the coast facing Phoenicia.

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It was a name with a future — in Phoenician, Qart-hadasht. Also worth noting is that the Phoenician name for Cyprus was Alashiya. They planted not tradingposts but urban settlements all across the southern, central and western Mediterranean coasts.

The migrations were so prolific that before very long some settlers in southern Spain moved on to establish themselves on the island of Ebusus, as archaeological finds indicate — although the Carthaginians claimed otherwise, as we shall see.

The Tyrians had their own chronicles, which may have told a different story about the migrations. Phoenicians were as punctiliously pious as Romans, and merchants arriving to trade in a new region would commonly set up a sacred place for their protecting deity to watch over them.

This may then have been recorded. Over-population may have been a factor, as some ancient writers like Sallust and Justin thought.

These stresses may in turn have created a third reason for some migrations overseas: domestic dissensions, blamed or credited by ancient writers as prompting the foundation both of Lepcis and, more famously, of Carthage.

A group of late 9th-Century datings is a different issue. Menander of Ephesus dated the event to or thereabouts.

This literary near-euphony looks impressive. But how Timaeus got his date is unknown he lived before Menander, but there were other, obscurer Greek writers on Phoenician affairs and, rather unsettlingly, he dated the foundation of Rome to the same year. But the archaeological evidence from Carthage goes back at least to the decades before Again, very recently published carbon analysis dates cattle and sheep bones found at the same site to the second half of the 9th Century, most likely between and — a result that is striking but also controversial, because associated with the bones are fragments of Greek Late Geometric pottery normally classified as 8th-Century.

Elissa, afterwards named Dido, flees from her evil brother Pygmalion king of Tyre and settles with her followers in North Africa at a site they call Carthage. Whether any of this colourful story can be believed is debated. A constant problem with ancient accounts of Carthaginian history is that they are all supplied by authors writing in Greek or Latin; and only Josephus, or rather his source Menander of Ephesus, claims a Phoenician basis for his.

The grounds for doubt and suspicion are potentially great, for as noted above Greek and Roman writers could bring imagination and inventiveness to their task; nor have we many ways of assessing their truthfulness. The Roman poet Virgil contributes memorably, but unhelpfully, by dating Dido to the time of the fall of Troy again, and telling of a passionate affair between her and the wandering Trojan hero Aeneas; her suicide was due to his sailing away to Italy.

Many modern scholars grant nearly as little trust to the non-poetic ancient accounts. There is more of a problem with his sister. Nor, as far as we know, did the Carthaginians in historical times have or do anything to commemorate her as foundress, though Justin claims that they paid her divine honours.

Certainly they had no other queens in their history or legends. Several features of it deserve thought, all the same. As even a summary shows, a strong Cypriot connection colours it. The girls saved by Elissa from sacred prostitution could be seen as intended servitors of Astarte the widelyvenerated Near Eastern goddess called elsewhere by other versions of the name, such as Astoreth, Attart, Atargitis.

Her priestesses did indeed perform that function, and she was worshipped in Cyprus. So was Baal, whom Greeks and Romans generally identified with their Zeus and Jupiter, and it was his high priest who brought heavenly favour on the exiles by agreeing to accompany them along with his family — interestingly on the proviso that his priesthood be hereditary to his descendants, a practice common in Phoenicia.

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Though the initial settlement, he implies, was on Byrsa itself, a warning omen then impelled the Carthaginians to move to another site, where they prospered. It has been suggested that the animal bones found near the shore below Byrsa and carbon-dated to the late 9th Century, yet with pottery fragments normally dated a century later, may have been dislocated from an initial settlement higher up the hill, perhaps in the course of urban development.

This is hypothetical, for what stood on Byrsa before bc is largely untraceable: its summit was cleared away in Roman times. Even so, it is intriguing that the report of a first and then a second site for the early city may not be pure imagination. There are other points of interest. So far as we can tell, only the Carthaginians remembered a woman founder for their city. A woman leading men in any enterprise was rare in legend: apart from Elissa-Dido, perhaps only the legendary Assyrian queen Semiramis figures thus — and Elissa is favourably portrayed as a leader devoted, resolute and resourceful.

The source that told him of Bitias and Elissa could, in turn, have been the one that Trogus was also to use. The suggestion is not compelling, for if many important Tyrians migrated with Elissa, as Justin says, we should expect some military officers too — and a gold pendant was a valuable possession all the more so in an era before coinage , not to be discarded even if Yadomilk had renounced his allegiance to the king.

That story, while clearly given dramatic colouring in Justin — notably the repeated theme of Elissa outwitting those who seek to exploit her, and her suicide-for-love — in essence tells how internal dynastic strife at Tyre caused the defeated party to emigrate and found a new city which quickly prospered.

As a Phoenician colony instigated by civic dissension, Carthage was not unique, given the tradition that Lepcis Magna was another. The dynastic stresses at Tyre sketched by Justin, if they did occur, must have occurred alongside the social, economic and international factors actuating Phoenician colonising migrations over a century and more. As noted earlier, over-population may have been one factor.

Another would be the pressure put on the Phoenicians by the resurgent empire of Assyria, which as early as was receiving lavish gifts from them seen by the Assyrian kings as tribute. By the mid-8th Century the Assyrians were exacting still more massive regular payments, notably of gold, silver, bronze, copper, iron and tin — raw materials which the Tyrians and their kinsmen could best acquire from the western lands but were now required to provide in quantities and regularity greater than the long-existing, often seasonal trading outposts could supply.

When Greek colonies in their turn came to be founded in the western Mediterranean — the earliest at Cumae near Naples around , soon followed by Syracuse and others in Sicily and southern Italy — trade between them and the colonies from Phoenicia also developed, to mutual benefit.

On current evidence, then, which dates Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean mostly to the century after , Carthage was not a late foundation as Greeks, Romans and perhaps Carthaginians themselves believed, but one of the earliest. She dates to no later than the earlier half of the 8th Century and may yet prove to have been founded in the late 9th.

The romantic and dramatic story of Elissa quite possibly rests on a basic historical reality, even if efforts to treat all its details as sober fact should be avoided especially those in poets, Virgil included. They also paid their annual rent to the Libyans, according to Justin; although in later times both sets of payments ceased. The area was the south-eastern side of a great arrowheadshaped peninsula pointing into the gulf of Tunis, a deep arm of the Mediterranean. The site consists of the hills and the shore below them, while high ground to their north forms the capes now called Sidi bou Said and Gammarth.

On the southern side of the peninsula, its shore is bounded by the oval-shaped lake of Tunis, an inlet of the outer gulf. Between bay and lake a broad isthmus linked the peninsula to the mainland, where other hills and higher ridges intersected by narrow valleys stretched into the Libyan, now Tunisian, countryside.

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This geographical position was unusually favourable, in a wellpopulated and productive region with river-valleys nearby — the Bagradas to the north of the site and the Catadas Mellane to the south — giving easy access inland, and local peoples willing to trade their mineral and agricultural products for goods both imported and Carthaginian-made.

Two centuries after the foundation, if not sooner, the city covered some to acres 55 to 60 hectares. Between Cape Bon and Sicily the Mediterranean is narrowest, only kilometres wide: an important feature for ancient ships, which could not travel for more than a few days without putting in to land for provisions.

Two hundred and fifty kilometres north of Hippacra lies Sardinia, also beginning to receive a steady flow of Phoenician settlers from around who readily developed two-way trade with Carthage. Carthage in her early centuries is hard to reconstruct in detail, because of developments in later times followed by her re-foundation under the Romans and by modern construction. The first settlement seems to have stretched eastward almost as far as the shore, as the sandy ground there has evidence of sites for the pungent preparation of dried murex shellfish to make the famous, expensive and coveted scarlet dye for clothing.

On the southern side of the colony, south-east of Byrsa, are traces of archaic potteries, iron foundries and other metallurgical workshops.

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At some date, incidentally, her ironmasters developed the technique of adding a quantity of calcium to their furnaces to neutralise the sulphur in iron ore, a process which much improved the quality of their iron products and was not recovered until the Bessemer process in the midth Century.

Such streets can be seen at the site of Kerkouane, a small city near Cape Bon destroyed in the mid-3rd Century. Stone or brick walls protected Byrsa at least, for traces of them have been found too; stone walls for the entire city-circuit would come later.

A town square or space no doubt existed then, just as one did later on a site further south, where people gathered for markets, political functions, ceremonies and announcements. Not until the 5th and 4th Centuries did further expansion change the urban landscape.

On parts of the slopes and crests of Byrsa and the other hills they buried their dead in increasingly extensive cemeteries or necropoleis. These and other resting-places supply much of the material evidence for Carthaginian culture and commerce, for it was customary to entomb the deceased with offerings and mementoes to help them in the next world — jars or bowls with food and drink, figurines, lamps, rings, amulets and jewellery, some home-made and others imported.

There was thus plenty of space for loading and unloading cargoes. The bay of Ariana, as it then was, on the northern side of the isthmus could also receive some ships. But it was no nearer to the city, and wagons or pack-animals would have to climb over Byrsa, Junon and the other hills to get down to Carthage.

As a result it seems always to have been less important for shipping and cargo. From there the coast trends east and then northeastwards, past more coastal heights, to become the mountainous and fertile peninsula of Cape Bon, imposingly visible from Carthage.

As noted earlier too, Justin reports them paying their Libyan neighbours a yearly fee for the site not always willingly until after Disappointingly he does not say which Libyans or how large a fee, or whether this paid for territory outside the colony too. The last is likely enough: it would be virtually unknown in the ancient world for any town to possess nothing but the land inside its own walls. The Libyans who were their neighbours were part of the ethnic group today called Berbers, who dwelt along the coasts and uplands of North Africa from the region of modern Libya to the Atlantic.

The high plateaux and long mountain valleys of this vast area, a virtual subcontinent north of the Sahara desert, supported semi-nomadic communities and small permanent settlements, often and perhaps regularly focused around dominant family groups or clans.

The peoples in the far west came to be called Mauri; to those east of the Mauri — that is, occupying roughly the broad uplands of modern Algeria — the Greeks gave the name Nomades, or nomads, while the Romans called them Numidians. The rulers of the countless North African communities are usually termed kings by the same writers like Iarbas king of Maxula in the Elissa story , though many or most were kinglets at best.Statements regarding the suitability of products for certain types of applications are based on Vishays knowledge of typical requirements that are often placed on Vishay products in generic applications.

To see similar products, please select at least one by the filters above. These and other resting-places supply much of the material evidence for Carthaginian culture and commerce, for it was customary to entomb the deceased with offerings and mementoes to help them in the next world — jars or bowls with food and drink, figurines, lamps, rings, amulets and jewellery, some home-made and others imported.

Nonetheless, Carthage during her first three to four hundred years may be comparable to medieval Venice, which acquired a maritime empire and Mediterranean-wide power long before it took control in the 15th Century of a large sector of its adjoining mainland.

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From about bc on, however, Tyre outdid Sidon in energy and success, thanks at least in part to vigorous and extended commerce. Her priestesses did indeed perform that function, and she was worshipped in Cyprus.

At some date, incidentally, her ironmasters developed the technique of adding a quantity of calcium to their furnaces to neutralise the sulphur in iron ore, a process which much improved the quality of their iron products and was not recovered until the Bessemer process in the midth Century. Again, very recently published carbon analysis dates cattle and sheep bones found at the same site to the second half of the 9th Century, most likely between and — a result that is striking but also controversial, because associated with the bones are fragments of Greek Late Geometric pottery normally classified as 8th-Century.

Greek settlements in the central Mediterranean were spreading too, chiefly in Sicily — notably Syracuse, Acragas and Messana — and southern Italy, for instance Cumae just west of Naples, Naples itself, Rhegium and Tarentum. The tide may be turning for the Baltic Sea: eight of the countries surrounding it are now members of the EU.

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