LlBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA. Norman, Donald A. Emotional design: why we love (or hate) everyday things / Donald A. by Donald A. Norman (New York: Basic Books, , pp., $) In his famous book The Design of Everyday Things (), Donald Norman argues for the. Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, Norman asserts that the emotional side of design may. Emotional design: why we love (or hate) everyday things / Donald A. Norman. Article (PDF Available) · January with 1, Reads. Cite this publication.
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and apply the IS principles upon which the Law of Success is based. the foundation of Napoleon Hill's philosophy of pe. understanding the relation between emotion and design. The second perspective is that of the user, and here too, functionality and appearance are important. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, The Design of Future Things, A Comprehensive Strategy for Better Reading: Cognition.
New York: Basics Books. New York: HarperCollins. As I began reviewing the three books Building Strong Brands, Brand Leadership, and Brand Portfolio Strategy by noted marketing professor and branding guru David Aaker he coauthored Brand Leadership with Eric Joachimsthaler , I used this simple yardstick to evaluate the marginal contribution of each book.
An integrative review calls for a comparison of three books to a common set of criteria. In Brand Leadership, Aaker and Joachimsthaler provide a similar set of criteria to compare traditional brand management and brand leadership.
Bandyopadhyay and Serjak also use a similar scheme to compare and contrast traditional and online brand management. There is a significant overlap between the criteria I use herein and those used in the previously mentioned studies e.
Table 1 lists the criteria and my evaluation of each book against these criteria. Focus In general, the focus of Building Strong Brands is on a single brand. Although Aaker talks about how to create and manage subbrands within an overall system approach, he concentrates mostly on a single brand. Aaker presents a thorough, lucid description of how to create strong brand identities, develop brand equity measures, and organize brand-building programs. In Brand Leadership, Aaker and Joachimsthaler make a valid argument that classic brand management is being replaced by what they call the brand leadership model, in which the manager emphasizes both strategy and tactics, and has a broader scope.
The focus is not only on short-term sales and profits but also on brand equity measures. Thus, the focus is more on the management of multiple brands than on a single brand. The focus of Brand Portfolio Strategy is also on multiple brands, but within the framework of a brand portfolio. This brand portfolio model emphasizes the relationship between brands and seeks opportunities to leverage the strength of one brand to project another.
The basic premise of this model is that brands are not mutually exclusive but are part of a well-designed portfolio of brands. Perspective In Building Strong Brands, Aaker discusses practical management issues and introduces a set of brand equity measures to help managers evaluate and track brand equity across products and markets.
Thus, the book is quite practical from a tactical point of view. For example, it provides a tool for a brand manager to develop his or her own brand equity measures and a unique identity for the brand.
In other words, the book provides many take-aways for the practicing brand manager. Such organizational associations are more endearing and more resistant to imitation by other companies than product attributes. The brand-as-person perspective focuses on the brand personality, which can make a brand more interesting and personalized.
Aaker believes p.
In Brand Leadership, the brand manager takes the leadership position in planning and implementing the business strategy. According to Aaker and Joachimsthaler p. Similar to Brand Leadership, the perspective of Brand Portfolio Strategy is also strategic in nature. Country Scope Because brand management is the principal focus of Building Strong Brands, the brand manager typically is responsible for the entire management of the brand in one country.
Managing a brand across countries requires a new set of skills, such as cross-cultural awareness and knowledge about the channel structure, legal structure, and the demographics of each country. Thus, a brand manager with a tactical flair in only one country may not be suitable for the task. The brand leadership model, as espoused in Brand Leadership, takes a global perspective. A global perspective involves not only global branding issues but also manufacturing, outsourcing, and research and development.
Brand architecture is a framework that identifies all the brands that are to be supported; their respective roles; and, more importantly, their relationship with one another.
The brand portfolio strategy also has a global component. The portfolio concept is particularly suitable for brand alliances e. A key component of the brand portfolio strategy is defining the brand scope. For what categories can the brand play a role? Is a new brand required to support a new product-market, such as an international market?
If it is found that a brand alliance is more suitable than a brand extension for the global market, the brand portfolio strategy is compatible with such as a scenario.
However, Aaker and Joachimsthaler have not explicitly recommended a global brand alliance strategy in their brand leadership model. Management Structure Because of the tactical orientation of the model developed in Building Strong Brands, this book is more suitable for a mid-level brand manager. Although the concepts of brand equity and brand identity are universal and relevant to managers at the mid- and upper levels, the book offers guidelines and tools that are of practical significance to a mid-level brand manager.
The brand leadership model focuses more on the strategic aspect of brand management. Thus, the manager must come from the upper echelons of corporate hierarchy because the task requires coordination between a multitude of people and organizations. The implementation of the brand portfolio strategy also requires a manager at the top-most position of the marketing organization structure. The person should be responsible for designing the brand portfolio, setting roles for the portfolio and the individual brands, defining the scope of the brand i.
Thus, the manager should be near the top in the marketing division hierarchy. This position is akin to the category manager position that is prevalent in many multiproduct multibrand companies for more details on category management, see, e.
For example, a category manager oversees all shampoo brands e. The category manger ensures that each brand has a unique positioning and that all brands follow a coordinated promotion strategy, thus minimizing promotional inefficiency and the possibility of brand cannibalism.
Control of Communication The model in Building Strong Brands is designed in such as a way that the brand manager makes most of the brand communication decisions. In addition, the communication is mostly geared toward the consumer because customer relationship building is a key ingredient in this model.
The brand leadership model and the brand portfolio strategy are designed for both external and internal communication. Although it is important to inform and persuade the consumer about product benefits, it is perhaps equally important to communicate internally to the key people in the organization to ensure complete convergence in strategic outlook. In the brand leadership model, the control of communication essentially rests with the brand leader.
The portfolio approach requires that the portfolio graphics i. The selection of the logo and its dimension, color, and layout can be used to make a statement about the brand and its relationship to other related brands.
Aaker illustrates how Mariott uses portfolio graphics to signal the relative driver role of a group of brands. Opportunity of Brand Leveraging Leveraging a brand involves building a strong brand platform in the core market and then extending the brand into other markets. It may involve brand extensions to a new product-market or a vertical line extension that moves the brand upscale or downscale in the same market.
In Building Strong Brands, Aaker talks about a system approach in brand management, but the focus is always on a single brand. Although scope for brand extension and line extension is always there, it is limited. There is also the risk of hurting the dominant brand if the extension goes awry. The brand portfolio strategy provides the best opportunity for brand leveraging. Aaker suggests p. In addition, the brand portfolio management must consider not only the current scope of the brand but also the future opportunities.
Brands should be leveraged as part of a long-term plan that outlines the ultimate product scope, the sequence that will take it to the destination, and the associations that are necessary to be successful.
This focus on the future distinguishes the brand architecture concept proposed in the brand leadership model and the brand portfolio strategy. Summary Overall, I believe that Building Strong Brands is suitable for the mid- to upper-level brand manager. It provides the manager with a tactical perspective on how to manage a brand. Aaker explains the concept of brand equity clearly and outlines measures of brand equity. In addition, Aaker urges the brand manager to expand his or her perception of the brand.
The ideas of brand as organization, brand as person, and brand as symbol are espoused in addition to the traditional brand-as-product perspective. Indeed, Aaker acknowledges the same in the preface of Brand Portfolio Strategy. In his words p. Thus, in this book a new label, brand portfolio strategy, is used.
This makes the brand portfolio strategy somewhat stronger than the brand architecture model.
Emotional Design, Donald Norman.pdf
Consumption, Happiness, and Marketing: A Review of Antimarketing Books A clutch of books published over the past three decades appears to present an antimarketing argument.
Several prominent economists and psychologists have examined the predominant way of life in consumer societies and have some surprising, some worrying, and some inspiring things to say about the acquisition of goods and the use of services in the developed parts of the world. This is a review of some of the more significant of these books. The question is, Why should marketing academics engage with these analyses?
All the books under consideration highlight a misguided pursuit of fulfilment through material acquisition and the transformation of the civil citizen into a self-centered consumer. Why are such critiques problematic for the marketing discipline? The authors suggest that in supposedly neutrally serving materialism and consumerism, managerial micromarketing is not helping people be happier, even though this is primarily what is promised. The main idea running throughout these works is that despite a gargantuan industry that teaches and trains marketing managers, people are joyless, discontent, unhappy customers whose quality of life is declining, whose social welfare is eroding, and whose physical habitat is being depleted and destroyed.
The best efforts of marketing technology notwithstanding, people have hit the social limits of the ideology of consumption. How can marketers respond to such withering blows?
What can and should marketers do in recognition of the cultural, social, ecological, and economic consequences of large-scale marketing systems?
I review the books in chronological order based on publication date, though I did not read them in this sequence. All but one were written in the North American context, primarily by economists.
Two were written by psychologists, and the other two were written by laymen consumers or is that citizens? In essence, the metatheme is consumption. The question raised is, What good are the goods people acquire and use?
Are marketers to blame for any waste that ensues? The economic view is that higher spending produces more satisfaction, but there is evidence to the contrary. Most survey data suggest that though economic welfare has undoubtedly risen, people are not happier as a result.
The question then is, How essential is this escalating consumption to happiness? For Scitovsky, the answer lies in understanding and explaining comfort rather than satisfaction. People are driven by the desire to relieve discomfort and for stimulation to relieve boredom. The main scope for choosing between pleasure and comfort in an affluent society is stimulation.
Ironically, the pleasures of want satisfaction are crowded out by affluence i. Scitovsky wonders when status seeking and conspicuous consumption benefit society. He also importantly emphasizes that the North American lifestyle on which many model their expectations for their own lives is very expensive in terms of energy and exhaustible resources. Goods and services are socially determined as necessities and luxuries.
Necessities serve biological functions for the satiable avoidance of pain. The consumption motive is comfort, and the result is the satisfaction of a need. Luxuries are everything else. The motive is the stimulation that satisfies wants, but pleasure seeking is insatiable. Comfort is achieved when the level of arousal is at or near optimum. Pleasure accompanies changes in this level, and therefore satisfaction of a need provides pleasure and comfort.
Thus, complete and continuous comfort is incompatible with pleasure. A choice must be made: A person can have pleasure with some sacrifice of comfort or comfort with the giving up of some pleasure. When comfort i. What motivates the choice is either comfort or pleasure. Increased affluence leads to the increased preference for comfort, but the price is the loss of pleasure.
Satisfaction of a want eliminates a discomfort, the initial presence of which is a necessary condition of pleasure.
In contrast, stimulation eliminates the discomfort of boredom, but the condition of deriving pleasure is the discomfort of the temporary strain it creates. The pleasures of stimulation are more likely to win over comfort than are satisfaction of wants because there is greater scope for free and rational choice.
Too much of a good thing can be a bad thing. Too much comfort may preclude pleasure. Scitovsky notes that people take for granted the good things of life and become addicted to them. At one time, a proud self-image was that of the sovereign consumer basking in a free- enterprise economy with freedom of choice to pursue his or her own personal tastes independently, thus determining what is produced and what is not.
Society is an unhealthy plutocracy in which those who have more money have more influence and those who have less money must conform to what others want; this is the rule of modern capitalism. Tastes are well catered to if a person is willing to conform.
Could it be that people desire satisfaction in the wrong things and in the wrong way and are then dissatisfied with the outcome? Is it those who offer the advantages who are to blame for the drawbacks? Still, people want to retain the benefits, so they seek a remedy in greater control over producers and their relationship with consumers; in others words, it is marketers who are at fault, not the consumers.
By contrasting the analyses of economists with those of psychologists, Scitovsky shows the conflict between what people choose to acquire and what will best satisfy them. It is assumed that rational consumers know what they are doing, do what is best for them, and do the best they can, and the job of the economy is to deliver what consumers want.
However, Scitovsky argues that this conceptualization overlooks that tastes are highly variable, easily influenced, and modified by price changes and availability of alternatives. It also overlooks that what modifies tastes may also modify the ability to derive satisfaction from things.
Furthermore, both consumers and producers benefit from the other conforming to their wishes, but producers have far more power and influence than consumers. Harmony in the marketplace is derived through the informing actions of competitors and downloaders and sellers.
However, most of the conforming is done by those whose behavior is most flexible. He points out that most life satisfactions come from outside of the market economy: from nonmarket goods and services, self-sufficiency, mutual stimulation, externalities, and work.
Yet people are engulfed daily in a sea of promotional messages that tell them to find satisfactions in downloads. As a result, they miss the realization that the contribution of the economic product i. In the market, two parties exchange because they prefer what they receive versus what they give. However, many exchanges occur outside of a market, and many unreciprocated acts are satisfying to both giver and receiver.
Furthermore, some market exchanges create both satisfactions and the needs they satisfy, and thus they have little or no use.
Most stimuli bring external benefits that are sensed by the consumer and others, so enjoyment is often enhanced by sharing. Most comforts have no external benefits, and they generate external nuisances e. Scitovsky argues that together these explain why happiness depends on ranking in society rather than on absolute income. This is a recurring theme in these books.
The Discontent of Economic Growth Paul Wachtel uncovers the psychological consequences of a growth-oriented way of life Wachtel In this account, there is a sense of deprivation and decline that drives the pursuit of greater economic growth, and this leads to serious harm to the life-sustaining environment.
The problem lies not in production, for people can make anything they need and want, but rather in the distribution of goods and services. A growth-based economy ultimately generates discontent. Wachtel diagnoses basic misleading assumptions about the individualistic consumerist way of life in North America. People have lost track of what they really need: psychological well-being in terms of social ties, openness to experience, and personal growth.
In economic terms, well-being is calculated on quantity of production and the accumulation of outputs. What are the underlying sources of discontent? There are unrecognized realities of consumer life. Third parties to market exchanges are usually powerless to affect them.
The contribution of material goods to life satisfaction has diminishing returns, and well- being is wrongly defined in economic terms. People do not need to be more competitive, they need to be clearer about what they have and what they need. The Problem of Too Much and Too Little What are the consequences of a consumption-oriented society in which people have too much or too little Durning ? Human wants are insatiable, so a consumer society can never keep the promise of fulfilment through material possessions.
People gorge on material things while hungering socially, psychologically, and spiritually for family and social relationships and meaningful work and leisure. For many people, consuming is now the primary means of self-definition and leisure pastime activity. In an era when progress is still sought through higher consumption, and the consuming elite are responsible for most of the exhaustion, poisoning, and disfigurement of precious life-sustaining land, water, and air, are people really dying to shop and, in so doing, dying of consumption?
For Durning, the answer lies in the idea that groups make choices that no member alone would make. People will take the easier path unless they collectively take the more difficult one. Writing at the beginning of the s, Durning expresses the conundrum of consumption as follows: There is little agreement on the seriousness of the problem and no apparent solution. It remains morally indefensible to deny developing nations the benefits of increasing consumption and politically impossible to reduce consumption in developed countries.
Yet consumption carries a heavy burden of cost on the environment and returns dubious rewards. The myth that the alternative to consuming is decline is perpetuated as needs are cultivated by mass-media advertising.
Durning offers a culture of permanence and sufficiency as the necessary alternative to economic collapse through unsustainable debt and as a way to tame consumerism.
Logically, consumption cannot produce fulfillment if human desires are infinitely expandable. Durning believes that consumerism is likely to be a short-lived value system, and he expects to observe lower consumption emerge as an ethical norm.
Although progress remains highly desirable, it will not be viewed in terms of more consumption. Consumption will be defined in terms of experience rather than acquisition of objects.
Luxury things will once again be considered more of a privilege than a right. For Durning, the postconsumerism era will witness the ascent of the golden rule: Do unto others as you would wish them to do unto you.
Most people seek comfort and consolation in the pleasures and products of shopping as captives in a culture of consumption, yet there is a growing gap between aspiration and resources. In a lifestyle wished for and sought after—for psychological release and stress reduction—shopping has become a form of recreation. Yet people never seem to have enough. Most is conspicuous consumption or competitive acquisition for visibility, position, and emulative behavior i.
Lifestyles are escalating through ostentatious, upscale spending. Many consumption goals are unattainable and unaffordable, so the outcome is inevitably dissatisfaction. The rule for success is simple: Work more to earn more to download more. This upscaling of desire never urges people to want less. Consumption continues to increase, and there are numerous imperatives to spend in consumer society; the economy is driven by growth, so the market imperative is bigger, better, and more.
People have an ever-expanding list of things they must have, yet the Genuine Progress Indicator and the Index of Social Health are both showing decline. People seek the status of individuality and distinction through products, but at what cost? In being an effective and efficient consumer, people also become socially dysfunctional.
Schor observes that consumption is correlated with the level of educational achievement, so universities may be breeding this urge. Case studies of success inevitably have material wealth on show. There are even class-based consumption norms to be readily observed. Market exchange selling and downloading emphasizes individual gain through ownership, whereas sharing emphasizes efficient use through social interaction.
For marketers, the question remains, Does selling lead to downloading, or is selling a natural requirement of the drive to acquire? Furthermore, how does downloading things produce life satisfaction? Unhappy Affluence How do downloading and consuming contribute to well-being and ill-being? Lane argues that subjective well-being depends on money income but that money income alone does not download happiness, and diminishing returns set in when people move above the poverty line into affluence.
Then, the good that is most conducive to subjective well-being is not money, job satisfaction, or even a sense of empowerment; it is the enjoyment of warm social relationships. Markets tend to reduce the supply of this unpriced good, thus raising its marginal utility. Lane believes p. He argues that markets are a source of unhappiness because of the materialistic motives on which they rely, the job insecurity they cause, and the way they deprive people of family time.
According to Lane, consumer culture is a lonely one, even though people exercise their personal freedom in meeting their personal preferences. Markets are supposed to satisfy human desires. Money income is a central premise of the market, and indeed, people try to value almost everything in money terms. Lane proposes that the market as a production system should be judged on the basis of its capacity to produce happiness and personal development i.
How capable is the chosen marketing system of delivering these? The evidence from the United States is that happiness is declining and that depression is increasing as people pursue materialism in market democracies.
Lane examines whether well-being is a market externality and whether democracy is inherently a source of unhappiness.
Are people the best judges of their own well-being? Lane identifies the apparent trade-off between money and companionship and argues for a companionate democracy to supersede the market democracy. The market undermines the collectivist people-oriented life by focusing attention on objects of desire. The market has the capacity to maximise individualized preference satisfaction or well-being by permitting the personal pursuit of happiness, but the materialistic tendency causes unhappiness by emphasizing the importance of possessions and acquisition to self-interested satisfaction and over well-being.
There seems to be a paradox in that materialists motivated by market rationality pursue wealth, but this has little effect on their well-being. At the same time, satisfaction with life influences satisfaction that is derived from consumption. In this case, technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to record even discrete users' emotional states monitoring emotions , in order to tailor final outcomes.
Future research in emotional design may explore how the continuous measurement of specific emotions can be exploited to influence ongoing interaction with common-use technology, for example modifying real-time easiness of use of devices or selecting digital content depending on the users' ongoing emotional responses.
A lot have been done, but we argue that still more can be done relying on an appraisal-based discrete emotion design approach. Indeed, appraisal theories of emotion have a lot to offer emotional design Desmet, ; Bordegoni et al.
Drawing on the scientific literature on discrete emotions as cognitive process, it is possible to expand the kinds of emotions that designers can reproduce and promote. Insofar emotions are considered as discrete events emerging from a specific pattern of appraisal themes Smith and Lazarus, , the more these themes are detailed, the higher the number of emotions and emotional nuances a designer can detect and control.
Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products
For instance, sadness' core appraisal concerns an irrevocable loss Smith and Ellsworth, ; Lazarus, If we detail this core appraisal, we can distinguish different kinds of sadness, such as melancholy, disappointment.
Such approach not only allows distinguishing different emotional nuances but it can also provide suggestions about reaching and promoting specific complex emotional states which include several single discrete emotional sub-components.
Indeed, intervening on aesthetic appeal of interfaces allows designers to promote a general positive feeling in users, that is what has been done by most current approaches. However, the scientific literature can provide indications to elicit even specific complex emotions simply basing on their pattern of appraisal. For instance, one is the emotion of awe or the deep feeling of wonder, astonishment and fear people experience when facing stimuli perceived as incredible and incommensurable Keltner and Haidt, e.
Emotional appraisal leading to the experience of awe includes two distinctive elements, namely the feeling of vastness perceptual or conceptual and need for accommodation i. Recent research demonstrated that immersive technologies e. For instance, Chirico et al. Appraisal dimensions of this emotion were analyzed in relation with the psychophysiological ones, thus providing a clearer picture of the emotional process.
In the emotional design, another important aspect concerns that emotions are closely intertwined over a continuous stream within subjects' experience.
The sub-components of emotional episodes influence each other and subsequent emotional responses. For example, sad people are more likely to attribute agency of subsequent stimuli to others and the external world, because sadness is an emotion experienced toward events one cannot control Han et al. Angry people are more likely to transfer anger to the next event to be evaluated in the surroundings Beaudry et al.
Instead, they are influenced by previous emotional states, or pre-existing individual traits, dispositions, and contextual factors Verduyn and Brans, ; Kim et al. For example, smartphones can be designed to elicit reactions such as surprise Desmet et al. Nevertheless, such emotional state is not lasting in time, rather it tends to disappear shortly after the first encounters with the stimulus, since surprise arises from unexpected and novel events Horstmann, Emotional designer should be able to create technologies updating according to users' personal information, in order to renovate the emotion of surprise continuously.
In other words, they should design technological products able to actively adapt their outcomes to users' everyday life in line with individuals' peculiarities. This would allow designers promoting lasting emotional benefits such as loyalty, satisfaction, and possibly happiness and well-being. Although such ability largely depends on the designer's ability, it is possible to empower one's capacity to analyze emotional profiles of users by employing User Centered Design research techniques Abras et al.
Collecting data on users' habits, intentions and context could help the designer to tailor technologies on their pre-existing emotional stream, within a user-centered design framework.
Finally, the advancement of common-use technology, combined with the knowledge available in cognitive science literature, could provide designers with extraordinary possibilities to fully exploit emotions' potential for user experience see Figure 1 for resume. While the second guideline in the table regards appraisal-based generation of emotion, the first and the third constitute examples of emotions participating in design. Author Contributions ST conceived the ideas presented in the article and wrote the first draft.
AC assisted in drafting the manuscript and contributed with important intellectual content. GLR edited the manuscript from a design perspective and created the image. GR supervised the whole process and contributed with important intellectual content. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments The authors want to thank professor Andrea Gaggioli for his important advices during the revision of the manuscript. References Abras, C. Alexiou, A.Again, the rigging rope was accentuated with gold colour to enhance its craftsmanship, and keep it in line with the agreed colour scheme visceral design. For what categories can the brand play a role? These experts were, 1. Aaker explains the concept of brand equity clearly and outlines measures of brand equity.
The design experiments are explained in detail in the next section. Collecting data on users' habits, intentions and context could help the designer to tailor technologies on their pre-existing emotional stream, within a user-centered design framework.
He contends that beautifully designed products make people feel good, which in turn puts people in an open frame of mind to be creative and find solutions to the problems they face.
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