Little Bugs 1: Self-Evaluation Sheets 'Listen and ' tests for Units and an End of Year review test. View PDF Little Bugs 1: Fast Finishers Worksheets Full-colour story cards help to tell the stories in Little Bugs 1 and provide a flexible. All the materials you need to try out the first unit of Little Bugs 1. You can print or download these materials to try out Unit 1 of Little Bugs 1 in your classroom. to tell the stories in Little Bugs 1 and provide a flexible teaching aid. View PDF. Macmillan Publishers Limited Little Bugs 1 - Teacher's Book: Unit 1. 1 Hide and seek. Lesson 1. Aims. • To greet Colin the caterpillar and his friends.
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The procedure involves heating up the infested item or area to temperatures lethal to bed bugs. By carefully controlling the temperature, bugs and eggs are killed wherever they may be without damaging household items. Some preparation is still required e. Another advantage of heat treatment is that infestations can often be eliminated in one day, rather than over multiple days or weeks.
Conversely, heat treatment alone has no lasting residual effect should bed bugs be reintroduced into the dwelling. Consequently, some companies recommend concurrently applying residual insecticides. To further minimize reintroduction, occupants are advised to take as few belongings as possible with them while the heat treatment is in progress.
Heat treatments are an effective way to eliminate bed bugs quickly, but tend to be more costly than conventional treatment methods. Heat treatments require specialized training and equipment, and may be more costly than conventional approaches relying principally on insecticides. Insecticides While the former methods are helpful, insecticides are widely used by most pest control companies. A variety of EPA-registered materials are available formulated as liquids, dusts and aerosols.
Baits used to control ants and cockroaches are ineffective in this case since bed bugs must bite and feed on blood. Bleach, alcohol, cigarette lighters, etc. Besides being ineffective, such actions can result in fires and other dangerous outcomes.
Application entails treating all areas where the bugs are found or tend to hide or crawl. This takes considerable effort and follow-ups are usually needed. Companies typically treat seams, folds and crevices of bed components, chairs and sofas, but usually will not spray the entire sleeping surface or seating area.
They also do not spray bed sheets, blankets or clothing, which instead should be hot washed or heated in a dryer. Fumigation using a penetrating gas is another way to de-infest dwellings or furnishings, but the procedure is only offered by certain companies. The fumigation process is technically complex and requires vacating the building for a period of days. The building is then sealed and injected with a lethal gas, usually sulfuryl fluoride. Because the entire building must be vacated, structural fumigation is logistically more challenging with multi-unit buildings such as apartments, than for single family homes.
Bed bug fumigations tend to be more common in southern and western states, where the procedure is also used to control certain types of wood-dwelling termites. Householders should be vigilant when acquiring used furnishings, especially beds and couches.
Discarded items should be avoided, and secondhand articles should be examined closely before being brought into the home. There is no reason to stop shopping in consignment stores, yard sales, etc. The risk of acquiring bed bugs from items downloadd in antique stores would generally be insignificant.
Discarded beds and couches might be infested and should be left alone. Bugs that crawl into the plastic dishes cannot escape. Avoiding bed bugs is most challenging in hotels, apartment buildings, and other places where there are many people, high turnover and ongoing opportunities for introduction of the pests.
Busy Little Bugs
Visual inspections can be supplemented by using various monitoring devices to capture and reveal bed bugs that may have been overlooked by occupants. Additional Tips for At-Risk Groups Business and Leisure Travelers Checking beds for bed bugs was a common practice long ago, especially while traveling. Travelers today should consider doing the same, preferably before unpacking. This would entail examining the bed sheets and seams of the mattress and perhaps box spring for signs of bed bugs, especially along the head pillow end of the bed.
Experts also remove and check behind headboards since this is a frequent hiding place for bed bugs in hotels. Headboards are heavy and cumbersome, however, and untrained persons should not attempt removal themselves. To help guard against bed bugs while traveling, take a moment to inspect beds.
A small flashlight is useful for dimly-lit areas. Vigilant travelers may also want to elevate suitcases off the floor on a stand, tabletop or other hard surface rather than storing them on the floor or another bed. Hyper-vigilant travelers may further opt to keep belongings in sealed plastic pouches and their suitcase in a zippered tote — however each traveler must decide how cautious they wish to be.
While encountering bed bugs in hotels is possible, typically only a small number of rooms have problems. If bed bugs are discovered, guests can request another room, preferably in another area of the building, since problems often extend to nearby units. The suitcase itself can either be treated or discarded. Social Service and Emergency Workers Caregivers, firefighters, and other service providers are sometimes required to enter and work in bed bug-infested dwellings.
In doing so, there is the potential to transport some bugs home or to the workplace. During the day, bed bugs usually remain hidden and immobile, becoming more active at night when seeking a host. Consequently, the chance of picking up bed bugs by merely walking into an infested dwelling during the day is unlikely. The risk may increase while providing care but can be lessened by taking some precautions.
Bring in only what is needed, and avoid sitting or placing coats and other items on beds, floors and sofas where the bugs commonly reside. Essential items can be placed on a tabletop or other hard surface, preferably away from bedrooms and sleeping areas. Better to sit on a hard non-upholstered chair than on sofas and recliners. Also try to avoid leaning or brushing against beds and upholstered furniture. If such items are carried out of infested dwellings e. As mentioned earlier, applying insect repellent at bedtime will probably not deter bed bugs from biting.
When working in severely infested dwellings, there may be some benefit to spraying tops and bottoms of shoes with DEET-based repellents. Those working in bed bug-infested environments may also want to hot wash or run clothing, etc. Schools and Daycares Bed bugs are a growing problem in schools and daycares. Typically they are introduced by students or staff living with an infestation at home. Pinpointing where the bugs exist can be challenging in such environments since there are no beds or sleeping areas for the insects to congregate.
Similar challenges occur when bed bugs are found in offices, libraries and retail stores. Teachers, nurses, and staff should be educated about the bugs and what they look like. Bed bugs should also be considered if a student frequently has reddened itchy welts --but keep in mind such reactions can be for reasons other than bed bugs.
Bed bug incidents in schools are best handled by knowledgeable pest control firms. Widespread insecticide treatment of classrooms, hallways, buses, etc. Effort instead should be spent checking chairs, desks, lockers, coat rooms, etc. Canine inspections can also be useful in finding small numbers of bed bugs in schools and other establishments where there are no beds.
However treatment can be expensive, often costing hundreds or thousands of dollars. Those who cannot afford this often must cope with the problem themselves. A useful step that anyone can take to combat bed bugs is to install bed encasements.
Little Bugs1 Teacher's Book
Covering the mattress and box spring can help eliminate a substantial portion of the bed bug population -- especially if discovered early while most of the bugs are still confined to the bed area. Extra care should be taken when installing budget encasements since these can tear easily, especially on metal bed frames. Ideally both the mattress and box spring should be encased.
A torn encasement may no longer be effective. With practice and a flashlight, nonprofessionals can become proficient in finding and destroying bed bugs. The process is made easier by reducing clutter, especially in bedrooms and sleeping areas. Bugs that are spotted can be removed with a vacuum see previous discussion , or killed with over-the-counter insecticides labeled for such use.
Most bed bug sprays intended for householders have little remaining effect after the spray has dried. Insecticide labels should be read carefully as some bed bug products should not be used on mattresses and seating areas.
Some insecticides applied as powders or dusts e. But by the time the nets were ready, a paper by an obscure German entomological society had brought the problem of insect decline into sharp focus. The German study found that, measured simply by weight, the overall abundance of flying insects in German nature reserves had decreased by 75 percent over just 27 years. If you looked at midsummer population peaks, the drop was 82 percent. Riis learned about the study from a group of his students in one of their class projects.
They must have made some kind of mistake in their citation, he thought. The study would quickly become, according to the website Altmetric, the sixth-most-discussed scientific paper of How could something as fundamental as the bugs in the sky just disappear?
And what would become of the world without them? Anyone who has returned to a childhood haunt to find that everything somehow got smaller knows that humans are not great at remembering the past accurately. This is especially true when it comes to changes to the natural world. It is impossible to maintain a fixed perspective, as Heraclitus observed 2, years ago: It is not the same river, but we are also not the same people. A study, by Peter H. The world never feels fallen, because we grow accustomed to the fall.
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By one measure, bugs are the wildlife we know best, the nondomesticated animals whose lives intersect most intimately with our own: spiders in the shower, ants at the picnic, ticks buried in the skin. We sometimes feel that we know them rather too well. Haldane reportedly quipped that God must have an inordinate fondness for them. A bit of healthy soil a foot square and two inches deep might easily be home to unique species of mites, each, presumably, with a subtly different job to do.
And yet entomologists estimate that all this amazing, absurd and understudied variety represents perhaps only 20 percent of the actual diversity of insects on our planet — that there are millions and millions of species that are entirely unknown to science. With so much abundance, it very likely never occurred to most entomologists of the past that their multitudinous subjects might dwindle away.
As they poured themselves into studies of the life cycles and taxonomies of the species that fascinated them, few thought to measure or record something as boring as their number. Besides, tracking quantity is slow, tedious and unglamorous work: setting and checking traps, waiting years or decades for your data to be meaningful, grappling with blunt baseline questions instead of more sophisticated ones. And who would pay for it? When entomologists began noticing and investigating insect declines, they lamented the absence of solid information from the past in which to ground their experiences of the present.
He was surprised to find that no such studies existed. Along with the impression that they were seeing fewer bugs in their own jars and nets while out doing experiments — a windshield phenomenon specific to the sorts of people who have bug jars and nets — there were documented downward slides of well-studied bugs, including various kinds of bees, moths, butterflies and beetles.
In Britain, as many as 30 to 60 percent of species were found to have diminishing ranges.
Larger trends were harder to pin down, though a review in Science tried to quantify these declines by synthesizing the findings of existing studies and found that a majority of monitored species were declining, on average by 45 percent. Entomologists also knew that climate change and the overall degradation of global habitat are bad news for biodiversity in general, and that insects are dealing with the particular challenges posed by herbicides and pesticides, along with the effects of losing meadows, forests and even weedy patches to the relentless expansion of human spaces.
There were studies of other, better-understood species that suggested that the insects associated with them might be declining, too. People who studied fish found that the fish had fewer mayflies to eat. Ornithologists kept finding that birds that rely on insects for food were in trouble: eight in 10 partridges gone from French farmlands; 50 and 80 percent drops, respectively, for nightingales and turtledoves.
Half of all farmland birds in Europe disappeared in just three decades. At first, many scientists assumed the familiar culprit of habitat destruction was at work, but then they began to wonder if the birds might simply be starving. In Denmark, an ornithologist named Anders Tottrup was the one who came up with the idea of turning cars into insect trackers for the windshield-effect study after he noticed that rollers, little owls, Eurasian hobbies and bee-eaters — all birds that subsist on large insects such as beetles and dragonflies — had abruptly disappeared from the landscape.
The signs were certainly alarming, but they were also just signs, not enough to justify grand pronouncements about the health of insects as a whole or about what might be driving a widespread, cross-species decline.
Then came the German study. Scientists are still cautious about what the findings might imply about other regions of the world. The numbers were stark, indicating a vast impoverishment of an entire insect universe, even in protected areas where insects ought to be under less stress. The speed and scale of the drop were shocking even to entomologists who were already anxious about bees or fireflies or the cleanliness of car windshields. The results were surprising in another way too.
Near the center of the old city, a paper sign, not much larger than a business card, identifies the stolid headquarters of the society whose research caused so much commotion.
When it was founded, in , the society operated out of another building, one that was destroyed when Britain bombed the city during World War II. By the time the bombs fell, members had moved their precious records and collections of insects, some of which dated back to the s, to an underground bunker.
Nowadays, the society uses more than 6, square feet of an old three-story school as storage space. I asked my guide, a society member named Martin Sorg, who was one of the lead authors of the paper, whether those dates reflected when the specimens were collected. And his insect work is really all he wants to talk about.
There was a reason for the wariness. Amateurs have long provided much of the patchy knowledge we have about nature.
Those bee and butterfly studies? Most depend on mass mobilizations of volunteers willing to walk transects and count insects, every two weeks or every year, year after year. The scary numbers about bird declines were gathered this way, too, though because birds can be hard to spot, volunteers often must learn to identify them by their sounds. Britain, which has a particularly strong tradition of amateur naturalism, has the best-studied bugs in the world. Think of Victorians with their butterfly nets and curiosity cabinets; of Vladimir Nabokov, whose theories about the evolution of Polyommatus blue butterflies were ignored until proved correct by DNA testing more than 30 years after his death; of young Charles Darwin, cutting his classes at Cambridge to collect beetles at Wicken Fen and once putting a live beetle in his mouth because his hands were already full of other bugs.
The Krefeld society is volunteer-run, and many members have other jobs in unrelated fields, but they also have an enormous depth of knowledge about insects, accumulated through years of what other people might consider obsessive attention. Some study the ecology or evolutionary taxonomy of their favorite species or map their populations or breed them to study their life histories. Because of the scientific standards of the society, members followed certain procedures: They always employed identical traps, sewn from a template they first used in Sorg showed me the original rolled-up craft paper with great solemnity.
They always put them in the same places. Armadillidiidae is a family of woodlice , a terrestrial crustacean group in the order Isopoda. Unlike members of other woodlouse families, members of this family can roll into a ball, an ability they share with the outwardly similar but unrelated pill millipedes and other animals.
This ability gives woodlice in this family their common names of pill bugs ,  roly polies , and doodle bugs. Pill bugs are not native to the Americas, but instead were introduced from Europe.
Pill bugs in the family Armadillidiidae are able to form their bodies into a ball shape, in a process known as conglobation. This behaviour is shared with pill millipedes which are often confused with pill bugs ,  armadillos , and cuckoo wasps. The diet of pill bugs is largely made up of decaying or decomposed plant matter such as leaves, and to a lesser extent, wood fibers. Pill bugs will also eat living plants, especially in wet conditions, sometimes consuming leaves, stems, shoots, roots, tubers, and fruits.
Pill bugs can be serious pests in certain agricultural systems, particularly in areas that are prone to heavy rains and flood conditions. Pill bugs will feed on numerous crop plants including corn, beans, squash, peas, melon, chard, beet, cucumber, potato, spinach, lettuce, and strawberry, with potential for significant yield loss in strawberry in particular. Some species of pill bugs are known to eat decaying animal flesh or feces.
Pill bugs contribute to their ecosystem as decomposers. They are capable of taking in heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead and cadmium and crystallize these out as spherical deposits in the midgut.
They also provide a food source for birds, toads, spiders, wasps, and centipedes. The family Armadillidiidae is differentiated from other woodlouse families by the two-segmented nature of the antennal flagellum, by the form of the uropods , and by the ability to roll into a ball. Within the family Armadillidiidae, 15 genera are currently recognized:Correction: Nov. A printable is a digital file that is downloaded directly to you.
Fun Stuff, Songs, Printables. Like beds, they can be difficult to treat and sometimes may need to be discarded. I've been working on some new products and am looking forward to adding more themed decor packs!