OBJECT-ORIENTED MODELING AND DESIGN WITH UML PDF

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Object-Oriented Modeling and Design with UML (2nd Edition) | One of the seminal professional tutorial/reference works that . Object Oriented Modeling & Design Using UML. Pages·· MB·6, Downloads. Object oriented Modeling and Design with UML - James. Rumbaugh . The main objective of this chapter is to introduce the concept of modeling in general. The object Web Design for Dummies 2nd Edition. Pages··


Object-oriented Modeling And Design With Uml Pdf

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Download PDF Object-Oriented Modeling and Design with UML (2nd Edition), PDF Download Object-Oriented Modeling and Design with UML. OBJECT ORIENTED MODELLING & DESIGN 1. Contents ADVANTAGES OF OBJECT ORIENTED METHODOLOGY. .. COMMON MECHANISMS IN UML. UML Applied - Object Oriented Analysis and Design using the UML. THE ELABORATION PHASE. Deliverables. Summary. USE CASE MODELLING.

But the underlying concepts are timeless, and some will find that this first edition of "Object Oriented Modeling and Design" isin its clear language, uncluttered notation, extensive bibliographic references, and terminology that became the standarda skeleton key to the incredibly rich OO literature of the time.

The sections on implementation in both object-oriented and non-object-oriented languages are like a Rosetta stone translation of central OO concepts; this, and the accompanying chapter on relational database systems, add greatly to the book's value as a reference work and as a guide to the literature.

Title: Object-Oriented Modeling And Design With UML (2nd Edition

There is also a page Solutions Manual, which contains answers to the many exercises and problems in each chapter. I haven't yet received this in the mail but, judging from the subset included in the main text's "Answers to Selected Exercises", I can only imagine it will make a great companion volume. In short, "Object-Oriented Modeling and Design" is pages of awesomea indispensable reference work, a guide to great OO literature, and a densely packed handbook of software construction advice.

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No notes for slide. Object oriented modeling and design with uml 2nd edition read [pdf] 1. Design decisions are often taken without a full understanding of the effect that they will have on subsequent development, and it is inevitable that in some cases decisions will turn out to have been mistaken. In these cases it is necessary to be able to backtrack, and to explore the possibility of alternative approaches, something that is not allowed for in strictly linear models.

In practice, then, systems are rarely developed according to the strict linear process specified by traditional design methodologies. There will always be iteration in the process, where earlier stages in the work, right back to the requirements, are revisited and altered or corrected later in the development.

Some writers have taken this further, and suggested that software should be developed In an evolutionary or incremental manner, where certain core functionality is implemented initially, and a complete system is gradually 'grown' by adding more and more functionality to it until a complete implementation is obtained. It has even been suggested that every project needs a unique development process defined for it.

Nevertheless, when a completed system is being documented there are strong reasons for pretending that a linear process has been followed. Documentation of a system should concentrate on describing the structure of what has been produced in such a way someone new to the system can quickly come to understand its functionality, its design, and the rationale for the various design decisions that were made. In such a description it can be very helpful to present first the requirements, then the system's architecture, and then the details of its implementation in a manner very reminiscent of the traditional stages of the life cycle.

In the case studies and examples presented in this book, this style of presentation will be used, even though it is very far from being an accurate reflection of how the programs were in fact developed. This normally implies the production of models to help understand the structure and design of the system. Methodologies define both a language and a process. The language defines the models to be used and the notation for expressing them.

The process states what order to produce the models in. UML is a language for expressing object-oriented design models, It is not a complete methodology, though its authors consider it to be suitable for use with an iterative and incremental development process, UML defines a number of views of a system, which represent properties of the system from various perspectives and relative to various purposes.

Information contained in a model is communicated in graphical form, using various types of diagram Design models and source code share a common semantic foundation, the object model. This ensures that it is possible to maintain a close relationship between the design and the code of a system.

Does the same answer hold for programming languages? Can you identify any common features of the tasks you have identified as being most suitable for graphical support?

Does the activity of software design share these features? The object model is the common computational model shared by UML and object-oriented programming languages.

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Programming and design languages express facts about programs at different levels of abstraction, but our understanding of both types of language is based on the abstract description of running programs provided by this model.

This chapter describes the essential features of the object model, introducing them in the context of a simple application. The notation provided by UML for illustrating these concepts is presented, and the chapter also illustrates how they can be implemented, thus making clear the close connections between design and programming languages. As the name suggests, the object model assess that the best way to understand an executing program is as a collection of objects.

Individual objects are responsible for maintaining part of a system's data and also for implementing aspects of its overall functionality. At the very least, objects will contain functions to access and update the data that they contain. Objects therefore combine two fundamental aspects of computer programs, namely data and processing, that are often kept separate in other approaches to software design.

Objects tend to be highly dynamic: as a system evolves and the data stored fry the system changes, objects are frequently created and destroyed to reflect these alterations. An individual object only implements a small fragment of a system's functionality. The global behavior of the system is generated by the interaction of a number of distinct objects.

The objects in a system must therefore be linked together in such a way as to permit communication between them. By means of this interaction, objects can cooperate to support behavior that transcends the data or processing capabilities of individual objects. In summary, then, the underlying approach to software proposed by the object model is to view an executing object-oriented program as being a dynamic network of intercommunicating objects.

A program is thought of as a graph, or network, whose structure can change from moment to moment. Objects form the nodes in this graph, and the arcs connecting the objects are known as links.

The objects are discrete packages comprising a small subset of the program's data, together with the functions which operate on that data.

Objects can be created and destroyed at run-time, and the topology of the object network can also be changed at run-time. The structure of the network is therefore dynamic. The links between objects also serve as communication paths which enable objects to interact by sending messages to other objects. Messages are analogous to function calls: they are requests to the receiving object to carry out some operation, and can be accompanied by data parameterzing the message.

In this way, computation can take place in the network. The role of the object model The object model provides the semantic foundation for UML's design models.

Object Oriented Modeling and Design James Rumbaugh PDF Free

The meaning of any design construct or notation in UML can be explained by rephrasing it in terms of assertions about a set of connected and intercommunicating objects.

Static models describe the kinds of connections that can exist between objects and the possible topologies the resulting object network can have. Dynamic models describe the messages that can be passed between objects and the effect that receiving a message has on an object. At the same time, the object model provides a very natural way of thinking about the run-lime properties of object-oriented programs.

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A 'network of objects' is only a slight abstraction of a computer's memory in which objects occupy memory at certain addresses and can store references to other objects that are also in memory. This dual role of the object model establishes a direct link between UML design notations and actual programs, and explains why UML is a suitable language for designing and documenting the design of object-oriented programs. A stock control example In manufacturing environments a common requirement is to keep track of the stock of parts held, and the way in which these parts are used.

In this chapter we will illustrate the object model with a simple program which models different kinds of parts and the ways in which these parts are used to construct assemblies of arbitrary complexity.

The program will have to manage information describing the different kinds of part known to the system. This son of information might be available in a firm's catalogue, for example. For the purposes of this example, we will assume that we are interested in the following three pieces of information about each part, 1.

Its catalogue reference number an integer.

Its name a string. The cost of an individual part a floating point value. Parts can be assembled into more complex structures called assemblies. An assembly can contain any number of parts, and can have a hierarchical structure. In other words, an assembly can be made up of a number of subassemblies, each of which in turn is composed of parts and possibly further subassemblies of its own.

A program which maintained miss information could then be used for a number of purposes, such as maintaining catalogue and inventory information, recording the structure of manufactured assemblies, and supporting various operations on assemblies, such as calculating the total cost of the parts in an assembly, or printing a listing of all the parts in an assembly.

In this chapter we will consider a simple query function which will find out the cost of the materials in an assembly by adding up the costs of all the parts it contains. Each individual object maintains part of the system's data, and provides a range of operations which permit other objects in the system to perform a specified range of manipulations on that data.

One of the hard tasks of object-oriented design is deciding how to split up a system's data into a set of objects which will interact successfully to support the required overall functionality.

A frequently applied rule of thumb for the identification of objects is to represent real-world objects from the application domain by objects in the model.

One of the major tasks of the stock control system is to keep track of all the physical parts held in stock by the manufacturer. A natural starting point, therefore, is to consider representing such of these parts as an object in the system. In general there will be lots of part objects, each describing a different part and so perhaps storing different data, but each having the same structure.

The common structure of a set of objects which represent the same kind of entity is described by a class, and each object of that kind is said to be an instance of the class As a first step in the design of the stock management system, then, we are proposing that a 'part' class is defined. Once a candidate class has been identified, we can consider what data should be held by instances of that class, A natural suggestion in the case of parts is that each object should contain the information that the system must hold about that part: its name, number and cost.

This suggestion is reflected in the following implementation. Execution of the following statement results in ihe creation of a new object; an area of memory is allocated for the object and then suitably initialized. Once the new object is created, a reference to it is stored in the variable 'myScrew'.

The object created by the line of code above is illustrated in Figure 2. The object is represented by a rectangle divided into two compartments. The upper compartment contains the object's name followed by the name of its class, both underlined.

At least one of these names must be present in every object icon. Class names are normally chosen to start with an upper-case letter and object names with a lower-case letter. An attribute resembles a variable contained inside an object: it has a name, and a data value can be associated with the attribute. This data value can change as the system evolves. The lower compartment of an object icon contains the names and values of the object's attributes.

This compartment is optional, and can be omitted if for current purposes it is not necessary to show the values of an object's attributes on a diagram. These notions are explained in more detail below, together with the related notion of encapsulation. The various terms are also related to those features of a class definition that implement them. State The first significant feature of objects is that they act as containers for data.

In Figure 2. In a pure object-oriented system all the data maintained by the system is stored in objects; there is no notion of global data or of a central data repository as there is in other models. The aggregate of the data values contained in an object's attributes is often referred to as the object's state. As these data values will change as a system evolves, it follows that an object's state can change too. In object-oriented programming languages, an object's state is specified by a number of fields defined in the object's class.

For example, the three attributes shown in Figure 2. Behavior In addition to storing data, each object provides an interface consisting of a number of operations. Normally some of these operations will provide access and update functions for the data stored inside the object, but others will be more general and implement some aspect of the system's global functionality.

Operations are not shown on object icons in UML, The reason for this is that an object provides exactly the operations that are defined by its class.

As a class can have many instances, each of which provides the same operations, it would be redundant to show the operations for each object. In this respect, an object's behavior differs from its stale as, in general, different instances of the same class will store different data, and hence have a different state. In programming languages, an object's operations are defined in its class, as a set of methods.

The set of operations defined by an object defines that object's interface.

For example, the interface of the part class defined in Section 2. Identity A third aspect of the definition of objects is that every object is distinguishable from every other object.

This i s the case even if two objects contain exactly the same data and provide exactly the same set of operations in their interface. For example, the following lines of code create two objects which have the same state. An object's identity is an intrinsic pan of the object model and is distinct from any of the data hems stored in the object.

Designers do not need to define a special data value to distinguish individual instances of a class. Sometimes, however, an application domain will contain real data items which are unique to individual objects, such as identification numbers of various kinds, and these data items will often be modelled as attributes.

In cases where there is no such data item, however, it is not necessary to introduce one simply for the purpose of distinguishing objects. In object-oriented programming languages, the identity of an object is usually represented by its address in memory. As it is impossible for two objects to be stored at the same location, all objects are guaranteed to have a unique address, and hence the identities of any two objects will be distinct.

Object names UML allows objects to be given names, which are distinct from the name of the class the object is an instance of. These names are internal to the model, and allow an object to be referred to elsewhere in a model. They do not correspond to any data item that is stored in the object; rather, a name should be thought of as providing a convenient alias for an object's identity.

In particular, an object's name is distinct from the name of a variable that happens to hold a reference to the object. When illustrating objects it is often convenient, as in Figure 2. However, more than one variable can hold references to the same object, and a single variable can refer to different objects at different times, so it would be easy for this convention, if widely applied, to lead to confusion.

Encapsulation Objects are normally understood to encapsulate their data. This means that data stored inside an, object can only be manipulated by the operations belonging to that object, and consequently that an object's operations cannot directly access the data stored in a different object. In many object-oriented languages, a form of encapsulation is provided by the access control mechanisms of the language.

For example, the fact that the data members of the part class in Section 2. Notice chat this class-based form of encapsulation is weaker than the object-based form which allows no object to have access to the data of any other object, not even that belonging to objects of the same class.

Its major disadvantage is that the data describing parts of a given type is replicated: it is held in part objects, and if there are two or more parts of the same kind it will be repeated in each relevant part object. There are at least three significant problems with this. Firstly, it involves a high degree of redundancy, There may be thousands of parts of a particular type recorded by the system, all sharing the samereference number, description and cost.

If this data was stored for each individual pan, a significant amount of storage would be used up unnecessarily. Secondly, the replication of the cost data in particular can be expected to lead to maintenance problems, If the cost of a part changed, the cost attribute would need to be updated in every affected object. As well as being inefficient, it is difficult to ensure in such cases that every relevant object has been updated, and that no objects representing parts of a different kind have been updated by mistake.

Thirdly, the catalogue information about parts needs to be stored permanently. In some situations, however, no part objects of a particular type may exist. For example, this might be the case if none had yet been manufactured.

In this case, there would be nowhere to store the catalogue information. It is unlikely to be acceptable, however, that catalogue information cart only be stored when parts exist to associate it with. A better approach to designing this application would be to store the shared information that describes parts of a given type in a separate object. These 'descriptor' objects do not represent indiv idual parts. Rather, they represent the information associated with a catalogue entry that describes a type of part.

Figure 2,2 illustrates the situation informally. For each distinct type of part known to the system, there should be a single catalogue entry object which holds the Dame, number and cost of parts of that type. Part objects no longer hold any data. To find out about a part H is necessary to refer 10 the catalogue entry object that describes it.

This approach solves the problems listed above. D ata is stored in one place only, so there is no redundancy. It is straightforward to modify the data for a given type of pan: if the cost of a type of part changed, only one attribute would have to be updated, namely the cost attribute in the corresponding catalogue entry object. Finally, there is no reason why a catalogue entry object cannot exist even if no part objects are associated with it, thus addressing the problem of how part information can be stored prior to the creation of any parts.

Catalogue entry objects hold the static information that applies to all parts of a given type, whereas each part object represents a single physical part. Figure 2. The relationship between the two is that the entry describes the part. A relationship between objects is in UML known as a [ink.

Links are shown graphically as lines connecting the two related objects. These labels are optional and are often omitted where there is no chance of confusion. Labels are often verbs and, in conjunction with the class names of the linked objects, are chosen to suggest a natural English rendition of The meaning of the link, in this case that 'a catalogue entry describes a part ', A small arrowhead next to a link name indicates the direction in which the relationship should be read, and use of this convention allows more freedom in the way that diagrams are laid out.

Object-oriented modeling

Object diagrams An object diagram is a diagram which shows objects and links between them. In a structure of linked objects, information is modeled in two distinct ways. Some data is held explicitly as attribute values in objects, but other information is held purely structurally, by means of links.

For example, the fact that a part is of a given type is represented by the link between the part object and the appropriate catalogue entry; there is no data item in the system which explicitly records the type of a pan. Implementation of links Most programming languages do not define a way of directly implementing of links, The simplest approach is usually to represent the link inside the linked objects by providing some way in which an object can know which other objects it is linked to.

Depending on the language being used, and the properties of the link being implemented, there are many different ways of doing this, A simple strategy is for objects to hold references to the objects they are linked to. For example, the following implementation of the part and catalogue entry classes allows each part to maintain a reference to the catalogue entry that describes it.

The rationale for this is that it is meaningless to create a part of an unknown or unspecified type. The following lines of code show how to create two objects, a catalogue entry and a corresponding part. The constructor of the part class ensures that the part object is linked to the catalogue entry object after it is created.

This means that it is possible for a part object to access its catalogue entry object, by using the embedded reference, but that there is no way of directly retrieving the set of parts that are linked to a given catalogue entry object. This introduces an asymmetry into the relationship which was not present in the links shown in Figure Although this may seem like a shortcoming in the implementation of the links, it often turns out that it is in fact unnecessary to implement links in both directions, and that significant simplifications in an implementation can be obtained by not doing so.

The fact that it is only possible to follow references from parts to catalogue entries is expressed by saying that the link can be navigated in one direction only.

Navigability is shown on object diagrams by adding an arrowhead to a link, as shown in Figure 2. If a link has no arrowheads, the assumption is that it can be navigated in either direction. A useful convention, therefore, is to use the names of the fields used to implement links as role names, as in this case. The name of the field in the part class that holds the reference to the catalogue entry is used as the role name at the catalogue entry end of the link. In order to implement this functionality, we will need to provide a query function of some sort which will enable us to find out the cost of individual parts.To view it, click here.

This introduces an asymmetry into the relationship which was not present in the links shown in Figure Experienced programmers can keep the data and subroutine structures of such a program clear in their minds while writing it, and if the behavior of the program is not what is expected they can make any necessary changes directly to the code.

Lists with This Book. This situation is an example of polymorphism: this word means 'many forms', and suggests that in some situations objects of more than one class can be connected by links, of the same type.

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