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The book starts by distinguishing the various ways a thing can "be in" another. He likens place to an immobile container or vessel: "the innermost motionless boundary of what contains" is the primary place of a body 4. Unlike space, which is a volume co-existent with a body, place is a boundary or surface.
He teaches that, contrary to the Atomists and others, a void is not only unnecessary, but leads to contradictions, e. Time is a constant attribute of movements and, Aristotle thinks, does not exist on its own but is relative to the motions of things. Tony Roark describes Aristotle's view of time as follows: Aristotle defines time as "a number of motion with respect to the before and after" Phys. Motion is intrinsically indeterminate, but perceptually determinable, with respect to its length.
Acts of perception function as determiners; the result is determinate units of kinetic length, which is precisely what a temporal unit is. Book V classifies four species of movement, depending on where the opposites are located. Movement categories include quantity e.
In fact, substances do not have opposites, so it is inappropriate to say that something properly becomes, from not-man, man: generation and corruption are not kinesis in the full sense. Book VI discusses how a changing thing can reach the opposite state, if it has to pass through infinite intermediate stages.
It investigates by rational and logical arguments the notions of continuity and division, establishing that change—and, consequently, time and place—are not divisible into indivisible parts; they are not mathematically discrete but continuous, that is, infinitely divisible in other words, that you cannot build up a continuum out of discrete or indivisible points or moments.
Among other things, this implies that there can be no definite indivisible moment when a motion begins. This discussion, together with that of speed and the different behavior of the four different species of motion, eventually helps Aristotle answer the famous paradoxes of Zeno , which purport to show the absurdity of motion's existence.
Everything which moves is moved by another. Book VII. Isn't the universe eternal, has it had a beginning, will it ever end? Aristotle's response, as a Greek, could hardly be affirmative, never having been told of a creatio ex nihilo, but he also has philosophical reasons for denying that motion had not always existed, on the grounds of the theory presented in the earlier books of the Physics. Eternity of motion is also confirmed by the existence of a substance which is different from all the others in lacking matter; being pure form, it is also in an eternal actuality, not being imperfect in any respect; hence needing not to move.
This is demonstrated by describing the celestial bodies thus: the first things to be moved must undergo an infinite, single and continuous movement, that is, circular. This is not caused by any contact but integrating the view contained in the Metaphysics, bk. XII by love and aspiration. Significance to some major modern philosophers and teachers[ edit ] The works of Aristotle are typically considered foundational to Western science and philosophy. Aristotelian "physics" is different from what we mean today by this word, not only to the extent that it belongs to antiquity whereas the modern physical sciences belong to modernity, rather above all it is different by virtue of the fact that Aristotle's "physics" is philosophy, whereas modern physics is a positive science that presupposes a philosophy This book determines the warp and woof of the whole of Western thinking, even at that place where it, as modern thinking, appears to think at odds with ancient thinking.
But opposition is invariably comprised of a decisive, and often even perilous, dependence. Without Aristotle's Physics there would have been no Galileo.
The historian of philosophy, accordingly, must study them, in spite of the fact that hardly a sentence in either can be accepted in the light of modern science. This same library continues under Theophrastus, acquiring more works of the same type, except that Aristotle is no longer a contributor. On the death of Theophrastus, we are led to believe, the library disappears for years, having been safely abscended by Neleus. Just as suddenly it reappears, having been rescued, cared for by three editors and a powerful aristocrat, to be published in a new recension by Andronicus, and to descend to us this very day as Bekker pages.
The paradox is that the recension that descends bears little resemblance to the library at Athens. It contains only books specifically authored by Aristotle with the inclusions of works later shown to be spurious. There are no works of Theophrastus or anyone else and no explanation of what happened to all the other books. The library that was rescued cannot possibly be the one that needed rescuing.
Study of the ancient sources reveals that, regardless of its legal status, whether owned, rented, or just occupied, an organization did reside there, which called itself "the friends" philoi and the establishment "the school diatribe of the friends. It meant that the relationship of belonging to the school was "completely informal.
They paid no one and received no pay from anyone. The expenses for the establishment were assumed by wealthy patrons, one of whom was Aristotle; however, during the time that Alexander the Great was a friend, there were no financial worries.
For all these informalities, they were nevertheless considered to be either "young men" neaniskoi or "elders" presbuteroi.
The business of the friends was not merely education in existing knowledge. As is expressed in the first few paragraphs of Physics, they were interested in discovering the principles, or elements of the knowledge, which was an entirely new goal in Greek education. This research was divided into specific "fields" methodoi. First they collected written works representing the existing knowledge.
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Subsequently, they collected field data through interviews and specimen-hunting. Aristotle is the first known scientist to have sent out field workers, and to have sent them with military expeditions. Alexander's ethnic and political intelligence gathering as a friend of the school was certainly of greatest value in his ultimate goal, to create a new, multi-cultural world empire.
His was the first known army to feature a military historian unit. He was said to have assigned thousands of men to the task of collecting specimens, presumably in addition to their military duties. These were written in a new type of document, which has survived in the corpus. The papers were then stored in the library. Their authors, analysts, contributors, whether or not they were emended, or corrected, and by whom, remain unknown for certain.
Diogenes Laertius called these "notebooks" hypomnemata and said that Aristotle wrote "an unusual number. Theophrastus was the first book collector, as far as Strabo knew. Apparently, the elders owned their own libraries and could dispose of them as they pleased.
The main problems with this view are, first of all, that Aristotle's Will survives credibly in Diogenes Laertius' D. There is not one word about a library.
Moreover, Aristotle, a metic , or foreign resident of Athens, was not allowed to own property or bequeath it, so he could not have either owned the school with its library or have left it to anyone by legal process. According to the laws in effect on the day Aristotle died, no one could own or bequeath the school to anyone.
The city owned it. As to whether Aristotle and Theophrastus had additional personal libraries of their own, first, private ownership was not in the spirit of the school, and second, the fate of the school after Theophrastus suggests that the library was in fact the school library.
After the death of Alexander, Athens staged a brief revolt against the Macedonians. Turning their attention to the school, they went after Aristotle, who went into exile to escape the death penalty. He died in exile. Within a few years Athens was again under Macedon ruled by Cassander. Theophrastus returned in triumph to the school under the authority of the new vice-regent of Athens, Demetrius of Phalerum , a friend of the school and former student of Theophrastus.
The school became even greater than before, but Demetrius made some changes to the administration. The meaning was not "his friend. A "friend" is an associate of the school.
There were not two gardens; Theophrastus was not a poor man in need of some property of his own. His extensive will details the disposition of the assets of the school as his own property, including the garden.
He names the friends and wants to make sure that they understand the ownership is to be treated as joint. Demetrius had simply instituted the legal convention prevalent at other schools of having the master own the school and its assets. The very disposition of the property in Theophrastus' will is an attempt to restore the koinonia established by Aristotle. This is provisional ownership. If the provisions are not met, the property must revert to someone by law, probably the proprietor, or owner, of the school.
The total property of Theophrastus as proprietor was much larger. The family estate at Eresus and the Aristotelian property at Stagira went to individual friends. He also owned funds in trust managed by Hipparchus. The latter was enjoined to use them to rebuild the museum and other buildings. He also had slaves in his possession as had Aristotle. They were either set free or given to friends. He had one freedman client, whom he rewarded richly for four more years of maintaining the buildings.
Abscondence of the library by Neleus[ edit ] The will contains one more bequest that is rather peculiar. It has a bearing on the nature of the Corpus, whether it is Aristotle's, Aristotle's and Theophrastus', or of all the friends.
There is as yet no solution to the problem of authorship, or rather lack of it. Ancient sources on the topic are inconsistent. There is no general scholarly consensus and no agreed preponderance of evidence. The will relates in translation "The whole of my library I give to Neleus. Without it the friends could not produce current or meaningful lectures about the topics for which the school was known physics, rhetoric, etc.
All the other school property was being redistributed to the friends in common except that the foreign estates were given individual owners, probably for their management, while the slaves and the minor received individual guardians , but the heart of the school, without which it could not pump knowledge, was not to be common property, an anomalous approach for the circumstances.
No explanation at all is to be found in ancient sources. The moderns almost universally retrieve one explanation, that Neleus was the intended heir of the archonship, although that, strangely, is nowhere suggested.
The law still required an archon with property rights over the school. Again, there are no details of how or why he acquired the position or any statement of Neleus's feelings about it, inviting speculation. He was given the library with the understanding that it would be shared as common property.
Instead "Neleus took it to Skepsis and bequeathed it to his heirs, ordinary people, who kept the books locked up Speculations are rife. Strabo's anecdote is not the sole ancient authority on Neleus' disposition of the books. Athenaeus of Naucratis , in his work Deipnosophistae , "Dinner Sophists," an imaginary portrayal of a series of banquets at which the guests are famous literary figures of the past over , so that the reader is served up menus and snippets of sophistry together, has his main character, the host, Laurentius "Lawrence" possessing "such a library of ancient Greek books, as to exceed in that respect all those who are remarkable for such collections; such as The easiest solution would be to drop one in favor of the other, and many authors take it.
The remaining solution is to accept both as partially true, creating a window of opportunity for speculatory explanation of differences between the Alexandrian and Skepsian traditions. The dual tradition of texts[ edit ] The ambiguous name, Corpus Aristotelicum[ edit ] The tradition best known to moderns is the Corpus Aristotelicum, New Latin for "Aristotelic body," a term not used by Bekker.
The Prussian Academy published his edition under the name Aristoteles Graece, "Aristotle in Greek," where Aristoteles is the nominative case. In most Latin and New Latin book titles the author is in the genitive case , such as Aristotelis Opera, "the works of Aristotle. In the late 19th century the corpus phrase began to appear in the notes of the German historians of philosophy, such as Zeller and Windelband.
It is in the "notebook" format. The content differs in that it is not an abstract treatise but is a history stating periods and dates. Not being able to fit it into an idea of the corpus based on Bekker, many rejected it.
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The date being quite ancient, the majority view is to accept it as of Alexandrian provenience, the only instance of an Aristotelicum from the library and school there. If it is to be only the works in Bekker, then such misleading phrases as "the original corpus" are possible, as though the works in Bekker are more authentic than any works out of it. Not even the works in Bekker are authentic beyond any doubt. The next logical step is to attempt to modify the definition of the term so that it is not to be the Latin word corpus but some special use of it: "The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle's works that have survived from antiquity through Medieval manuscript transmission.
Reference to them is made according to Immanuel Bekker's nineteenth-century Royal Prussian Academy edition It is often translated as "the works of Aristotle. George Grote had said "Very different is the case when we attempt to frame an Aristotelian Canon, comprising all the works of Aristotle and none others. We find the problem far more complicated, and the matters of evidence at once more defective, more uncertain, and more contradictory.
Even if "canon" had survived instead of corpus, such a meaning now would fail to distinguish Bekker. Applications of curved reflectors. Magnification is the ratio of the image size to the object size. When the ratio is greater than one we say the image is magnified and when less than one we say it is diminished.
Determine the size, position and nature of the image of an object 5. Solution Let 1 cm represent 5 cm. Then the focal length is 3 cm. Image is real and inverted. A vertical object 5 cm high is placed 10 cm in front of a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm. Determine the magnification of the image. The image is virtual and erect.
Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of a current in The direction of the field is dependent on the direction of the current. This discovery brought about the development of electric bells, electric motors, telephone receivers and radios. Determining the direction of the lines of force.
The direction of the lines of force can be determined using a simple rule called the right-hand screw rule. Magnetic field due to a solenoid. The rule for polarity. A solenoid is a cylindrical coil of wire acting as a magnet when carrying electric current. An electromagnet is a soft metal core made into a magnet by passing an electric current through a coil surrounding it.
They only maintain their magnetism if current continues to flow, if switched off they lose their magnetism.
Factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet. Increasing current through the coil. Increasing the number of turns of the coil. Using iron of C- core shape which brings both magnetic poles together.
Some applications of electromagnets. When the hammer hits the gong the contact between the spring and the screw is broken and then stops the current from flowing.
The soft iron core loses its magnetism and releases the armature which is then pulled back by the screw. The contact between the spring and the screw is regained and the process repeats itself again and again therefore the gong is struck continuously.
It consists of a u-magnet made by attaching two soft-iron bars to the end of a short permanent magnet. The solenoids are wound in opposite directions around the bars. When the phone is lifted the current flows through the solenoids depending on the microphone on the other end of the line. These varying current spasms induce magnetism of varying strengths in the iron bars which in turn causes the magnetic alloy diaphragm to vibrate differently producing sound. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.
When a conductor carries a current in a magnetic field a force acts on it. The direction of the force depends on the directions of the field and current. The factors affecting the magnitude of the force are; a The current flowing in the conductor b The strength of the magnet c The length of the conductor in the magnetic field.
The relationship between the directions of the current, field and force are mutually perpendicular. Applications of the force on a conductor.
Simple D. C motor. Consists of a rectangular coil of wire mounted on an axle which can rotate between the poles of a magnet.
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For the rotation to be continuous the ends of the coil is connected to half -rings called the split-ring commutators. The battery terminals are attached to brushes which slide on these half-rings. C motors are useful as car starter motors, hand drills, machine motors, fans etc.
The constant of proportionality k is called the spring constant. The spring constant is a measure of the stiffness of a spring. The greater the constant the stiffer the spring. The spring constant varies with the following;- a Material — identical springs mad of different materials will have different constants i.
Example 1. If the springs shown below are similar and the constant of proportionality k is Nm-1, determine total extension in each arrangement. The spring balance It is made up of a spring mounted in a metal or plastic casing.
The spring is fitted with a pointer which moves along a calibrated scale divided into ten equal parts. A load of 4 N causes a certain copper wire to extend by 1. Find the load that will cause a 3. Given that the spring extended by mm, what is the spring constant for this spring? Two identical springs, whose spring constant is 6. Determine the extension of each spring. Solution Since the springs are parallel their spring constant equals 2k. Each spring will extend by 5 cm.
Chapter Eight Waves I A wave is simply a disturbance that moves through a medium. Other waves do not require a medium to travel i. Other waves require a material medium to be transferred and are called mechanical waves i.
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Transverse and longitudinal pulses and waves. Transverse waves — they consist of a crest and a trough. In this case the displacement of the medium caused by these pulses are perpendicular to the direction in which the wave disturbance travels. A pulse is a single non-repeated disturbance.
If the pulses are repeated periodically regularly they produce a series of waves called periodic transverse wave train. They can be produced as shown below. Examples are water waves, light and radio waves. Longitudinal waves — these are waves whereby the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of movement of the disturbance.
When several turns of a spring are pulled together compression and then released they tend to spread out to their original position. The student book comprehensively covers the new senior science syllabi and provides the framework for students to achieve success in one or more of the general science courses: Contact your local education consultant for access codes and conditions.
Create a List. Please enter the name of your new list: List Name: Technical Issues. We are currently we are experiencing technical issues with our website. Please try again later Out Of Stock. This item is currently out of stock, and will be back ordered..This state of mind is clearly possible.
Aristotle contrasts natural things with the artificial: artificial things can move also, but they move according to what they are made of, not according to what they are. We must inquire therefore in what manner chance and spontaneity are present among the causes enumerated, and whether they are the same or different, and generally what chance and spontaneity are.
The relationship between the directions of the current, field and force are mutually perpendicular. The date of a copy is to be distinguished from the date of its recension.
Evidently the plans did not materialize. If then there is to be a house, such-and-such things must be made or be there already or exist, or generally the matter relative to the end, bricks and stones if it is a house. Examples 1.
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