English for the Travel and Tourism Industry Student Book. Oxford English for Careers Tourism 2 Student’sssss computerescue.info computerescue.info Oxford English for Careers: Tourism 2: Teacher's Resource Book by Robin Walker, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Tourism 2 Teacher's Resource Book book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Tourism teaches pre-work students to.
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Tourism is ideal for pre-work students, studying at pre-intermediate to upper- intermediate levels, who will need to use English in work situations. Tourism is. oxford english for careers tourism 2 teacher's book pdf oxford english for careers tourism 1 teacher's book pdf oxford english for careers tourism. TOURISM. BOIS. Robin Walker and Keith Harding. SDS. Teacher's Resource Book Under no circumstances may any part of this book be photocopied for resale . Encourage students to share their sources. 2. This is designed as a warm-up.
These methods follow from the basic empiricist position that language acquisition results from habits formed by conditioning and drilling.
In its most extreme form, language learning is seen as much the same as any other learning in any other species, human language being essentially the same as communication behaviors seen in other species. On the theoretical side are, for example, Francois Gouin, M.
Berlitz, and Emile B. With these methods, students generate original and meaningful sentences to gain a functional knowledge of the rules of grammar. This follows from the rationalist position that man is born to think and that language use is a uniquely human trait impossible in other species.
Given that human languages share many common traits, the idea is that humans share a universal grammar which is built into our brain structure. This allows us to create sentences that we have never heard before but that can still be immediately understood by anyone who understands the specific language being spoken. The rivalry between the two camps is intense, with little communication or cooperation between them. In some countries, such as the United States, language education also referred to as World Languages has become a core subject along with main subjects such as English, Maths and Science.
In the majority of English-speaking education centers, French, Spanish and German are the most popular languages to study and learn.
English As A Second Language is also available for students whose first language is not English and they are unable to speak it to the required standard. Teaching foreign language in classrooms[ edit ] High school Spanish taught as a second language to a class of native English speakers at an American private school in Massachusetts. Language education may take place as a general school subject or in a specialized language school.
There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights. While sometimes confused, the terms "approach", "method" and "technique" are hierarchical concepts. An approach is a set of assumptions about the nature of language and language learning, but does not involve procedure or provide any details about how such assumptions should be implemented into the classroom setting.
Such can be related to second language acquisition theory. There are three principal "approaches": The structural view treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning e. The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something. The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchanges.
This approach has been fairly dominant since the s.
Examples of structural methods are grammar translation and the audio-lingual method. A technique or strategy is a very specific, concrete stratagem or trick designed to accomplish an immediate objective.
Such are derived from the controlling method, and less directly, from the approach. Audio recordings and books[ edit ] Audio recordings use native speakers, and one strength is helping learners improve their accent. Others are continuous so the learner speaks along with the recorded voice, similar to learning a song.
Most audio recordings teach words in the target language by using explanations in the learner's own language. An alternative is to use sound effects to show meaning of words in the target language.
Language books have been published for centuries, teaching vocabulary and grammar. The simplest books are phrasebooks to give useful short phrases for travelers, cooks, receptionists,  or others who need specific vocabulary. More complete books include more vocabulary, grammar, exercises, translation, and writing practice.
Also, various other "language learning tools" have been entering the market in recent years. Internet and software[ edit ] Software can interact with learners in ways that books and audio cannot: Some software records the learner, analyzes the pronunciation, and gives feedback. Software can pronounce words in the target language and show their meaning by using pictures  instead of oral explanations.
The only language in such software is the target language. It is comprehensible regardless of the learner's native language. Websites provide various services geared toward language education.
Some sites are designed specifically for learning languages: Some software runs on the web itself, with the advantage of avoiding downloads, and the disadvantage of requiring an internet connection. Some publishers use the web to distribute audio, texts and software, for use offline. For example, various travel guides, for example Lonely Planet, offer software supporting language education.
Some websites offer learning activities such as quizzes or puzzles to practice language concepts. Language exchange sites connect users with complementary language skills, such as a native Spanish speaker who wants to learn English with a native English speaker who wants to learn Spanish.
Language exchange websites essentially treat knowledge of a language as a commodity, and provide a marketlike environment for the commodity to be exchanged.
Users typically contact each other via chat, VoIP , or email. Language exchanges have also been viewed as a helpful tool to aid language learning at language schools. Language exchanges tend to benefit oral proficiency, fluency, colloquial vocabulary acquisition, and vernacular usage, rather than formal grammar or writing skills. Across Australasia, 'Language Perfect' - an online vocabulary learning site- is frequently used as it enables teachers to monitor students' progress as students gain a "point" for every new word remembered.
There is an annual international Language Perfect contest held in May. Many other websites are helpful for learning languages, even though they are designed, maintained and marketed for other purposes: All countries have websites in their own languages, which learners elsewhere can use as primary material for study: news, fiction, videos, songs, etc.
In a study conducted by the Center for Applied Linguistics , it was noted that the use of technology and media has begun to play a heavy role in facilitating language learning in the classroom. With the help of the internet, students are readily exposed to foreign media music videos, television shows, films and as a result, teachers are taking heed of the internet's influence and are searching for ways to combine this exposure into their classroom teaching.
Course development and learning management systems such as Moodle are used by teachers, including language teachers.
Web conferencing tools can bring remote learners together; e. Tell the class they will have the opportunity to share their opinions in a debate. If you teach a large class, you may want to break students into groups and then have these groups form two teams that can debate. Another option for larger classes is for students to volunteer to participate in the debate, while the rest of the class can act as audience and decide which team won.
Begin the debate by dividing the class or a group of students into two teams. Decide which team will be the For side, which will argue in favor of the topic, and which will be the Against side, which will argue against the theme of the topic. While the students are forming For and Against teams, go to the chalkboard and write the theme and topics for the debate: Debate Theme: Tourism Topic 1: Whether tourism is always good for the local economy, and the economy is more important than too many tourists.
Topic 2: Whether too much tourism can harm the local culture of a city. Topic 3: Whether people should travel less.
Oxford English for Careers: Tourism 2: Teacher's Resource Book
For large classes, students can take turns debating: one group of students debates one topic, then the next group of students debates the next topic, and so on.
Note: For more advanced lessons, assign the debate preparation as homework so students can research the topics and prepare with more details. Once the students are prepared, have the students who are going to debate first come to the front of the class.
Have the two teams form lines on opposite ends of the board.
Begin the debate by having the first student in line of the For team present his or her argument for one minute. After the first students from each team have spoken for a minute, have them move to the back of the line and have the second student in each line more forward. They will now debate against each other. This time the Against student goes first for one minute. The student for the For team then gets to present his or her argument on the topic.
Continue until all students have had the opportunity to debate. For more information on debates and ideas for using debates in class, check out The Great Mini-Debate on the American English webpage. Cities — particularly in Europe — are increasingly taking steps against tourists.
Venice, Italy, for example, is planning to bar some large passenger ships. Barcelona, Spain, has placed restrictions on apartment rentals. The problem these cities say they are dealing with is "over-tourism" -- too many tourists visiting at once.
He spoke recently to tourism ministers at London's World Travel Market.
He said the rise of slogans, such as "tourists go home" and "tourists are terrorists," was "a wake-up call. Low-cost airline tickets are helping fuel the growth in tourism numbers, along with increasing travel from China.
Yet many places depend on tourism for jobs and wealth. Around 10 percent of the world's gross domestic product, or GDP, comes from tourism. Taleb Rifai said that growth is not "the enemy. What are countries and cities doing to limit tourism?Tim Fairhurst leads planning and policy at the European Tourism Association. The students are asked to deliver a PowerPoint presentation on the career that they have picked to present to the class. Zamenhof , a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist, in , aimed to eliminate language barriers in the international contacts.
Holiday rep. Follow us. Robin Walker is a first-time author with Oxford University Press. Harry -Potter Search results will not contain 'Potter'. They worked on setting language teaching principles and approaches based on linguistic and psychological theories, but they left many of the specific practical details for others to devise.
Background, teaching notes, tips, and additional activities. There are other strategies that also can be used such as guessing, based on looking for contextual clues, spaced repetition with a use of various apps, games and tools e.
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