Architect's Handbook Of Construction Detailing. Topics civil. Collection opensource IdentifierArchitectsHandbookOfConstructionDetailing. architecture construction detailing. David Kent Ballast, FAIA, CSI. the Architect’s Handbook of Construction Detailing provides basic detail conﬁgurations that can be used as the basis for project-speciﬁc detail development. Significantly updated with revisions to nearly all plus details, this second edition of Architect's Handbook of Construction Detailing provides.
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Nom original: Architect's Handbook of Construction computerescue.info Auteur: [email protected] Ce document au format PDF a été généré par. Architect's Handbook Of Construction. Detailing Pdf. The Architect's. Portable Handbook building construction or code enforcement to solicit their professional . Building design and construction handbook / Frederick S. Merritt, editor, . tional authoritative information may be obtained, such as architectural and engi- The general contractor plans and schedules construction operations in detail and .
Although there are industry standards for developing SI equivalents, there is no consistency for rounding off when conversions are made.
For the purposes of this book, the following conventions have been adopted. Throughout this book, the customary U. In the text, the unit sufxes for both systems, such as ft or mm, are shown. In the illustrations, the number values and U. This follows standard construction practice for SI units on architectural drawings; a number is understood to be in millimeters unless some other unit is given. The exception to this convention occurs when a number is based on an international standard or product.
In this case, the primary measurement is given rst in SI units with the U. The unit sufx is shown for both in the text as well as in the illustrations to avoid confusion. When a standards-writing organization or a trade association gives dual units for a particular measurement, those numbers are used exactly as they come from the source. For example, one group might use 6. For dimensions over a few inches, the SI equivalent is rounded to the nearest 5 mm and to the nearest 10 mm for numbers over a few feet.
When the dimension exceeds several feet, the number is rounded to the nearest mm. These tolerances give architects, engineers, and contractors allowable variations from given dimensions and elevations. Knowing these tolerances is important in detailing because allowances must be made for variations from idealized dimensions when several materials are connected, when clearances are required, or when appearance is critical. This section and Sections , , , , , and give some of the industry standard tolerances regarding concrete construction.
Slabs-on-grade as well as elevated slabs are subject to two tolerances. One is the overall tolerance above and below the specied elevation, and the other is the atness and levelness of the oor nish. Flatness is the degree to which the surface approximates a plane. Levelness is the degree to which the surface parallels the horizontal plane. See Section for tolerances of other slab surfaces. The tolerances given can also be used to specify sloped surfaces.
Verify the size of temperature reinforcement, the concrete strength, and the size and spacing of rebars if any with a structural engineer. Detailing Considerations Do not specify a tolerance higher than that actually required for the project because higher nish tolerances generally cost more to achieve. Verify the slab thickness required for the project. Floors with heavy loads require thicker slabs and special reinforcing.
Coordination Required In order to maintain the specied level of the slab, proper compaction and subgrade preparation must be specied and maintained during construction.
Soil and ll under slabs should be compacted to 95 percent of standard Proctor density. Locate joints according to the information given in Sections , , and Vapor barriers should be used under slabs to prevent moisture migration into the slab, to prevent shrinkage cracks, and to provide a barrier to radon penetration.
However, in order to prevent plastic and drying shrinkage caused by differential water loss between the top and bottom of the slab, the slab must be properly cured following ACI recommendations.
Reinforcing and concrete strength should be selected based on the service requirements of the slab. Generally, lightly loaded slabs require a minimum compressive concrete strength of psi 24, kPa , while light industrial and commercial slabs require a compressive strength of psi 27, kPa. Allowable Tolerances Level alignment tolerance is shown in Fig.
Random trafc oor nish tolerances may be specied either by the traditional 10 ft 3 m straightedge method, shown in Fig.
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For a complete discussion of the F-number system refer to ACI If the 10 ft 3 m straightedge method is used, there are three oor classications: conventional, moderately at, and at. In order for a surface to meet the requirements of one of these three classications, a minimum of 0. Ninety percent of the samples must be within the rst column shown in Fig.
The orientation of the straightedge must be parallel, perpendicular, or at a 45 degree angle to the longest construction joint bounding the test surface. The F-number system, diagrammed in Fig. The higher the FF or FL number, the atter or more level the oor. In most cases, a sophisticated instrument must be used that can take the measurements and perform the calculations necessary for determining the F numbers. However, to determine the F numbers, measurements must be taken within 72 hours of oor installation and, for suspended slabs, before shoring and forms are removed.
Therefore, for suspended slabs, the specied levelness of a oor may be compromised when the oor deects when the shoring is removed and loads are applied. ACI gives requirements for ve classes of oors that can be specied: conventional, moderately at, at, very at, and superat.
In addition, minimum local values for atness and levelness must also be achieved. Refer to ACI for detailed requirements. It includes elevation tolerances as well as cross-sectional tolerances for elements such as columns, beams, walls, and slabs. Floor tolerance measurements must be made within 72 hours after the concrete is nished and before the shoring is removed.
For additional tolerances, refer to ACI If smaller tolerances are required, they should be clearly indicated in the contract documents and discussed with the contractor prior to construction.
Detailing Considerations In some cases tolerances may accumulate, resulting in a wider variation from true measurement than that due to individual tolerances alone. In general, higher accuracy requires a higher construction cost.
A oor poured over metal decking will generally deect signicantly. Type 1. Detailing Considerations Vertical expansion joints should be installed at concrete or concrete masonry control joints.
Sash block used to accept shear lug. Limitations of Use This detail does not include horizontal control joints. The Brick Industry Association recommends the following formula for determining the spacing of joints: See Section for an explanation of how this is derived. Refer to the following section on how to determine the width of expansion joints.
Masonry Details 59 Figure Vertical brick expansion joint 04 05 As a general rule. The number 0. Through-wall building expansion joints must be provided to accommodate differential structural movement. Reinforcement must be discontinuous at the expansion joint. The temperature range depends on the climate. In many cases.
Manufacturing tolerances are minor and can usually be accommodated by varying the head joints slightly as the wall is laid. Brick tolerances are subject to both manufacturing and installation tolerances. If tighter tolerances are needed to minimize the width of the joint. Lower movement capability will result in closer spacing of joints. Sizing Vertical Expansion Joints in Brick Masonry Expansion joints in brick masonry can be sized according to the following formula: In addition to adding the effects of tolerances.
Table shows joint widths for various joint spacings. Tolerances not included. ASTM E Likely Failure Points Joint cracking if horizontal reinforcement is continued across the joint or if mortar is used in the joint Materials 04 05 Mortar accelerators containing calcium chloride should not be used when mortar may come in contact with reinforcing anchors and ties. Hollow facing brick. Refer to Section for more information.
Select brick grades according to exterior exposure and soil contact. Vapor-permeable or vapor-impermeable as required by local climatic conditions. See Section for a discussion of vertical brick expansion joints.
They should also be installed at changes in wall thickness or height. Additional rigid board insulation can provide an additional R-value as well as a smooth surface to apply an air barrier. Insulation placed in the cavity can increase the differential movement. Figure does not show insulation on the outside of the block wall. Detailing Considerations Expansion joints should be installed in the brick wythe wherever expansion joints are installed in the block wythe. This detail is used in commercial and residential construction where the masonry is used as a load-bearing wall.
Proper priming and backer rods required. Should compress to 30 percent to 50 percent of the original thickness. Limitations of Use This detail is for exterior masonry walls. See Sections and for additional recommendations. Masonry Details 63 Figure Vertical expansion joint in composite walls 04 05 Joint reinforcement must be discontinuous at the joint.
See Section for guidelines on sizing joints in brick. Select brick grades according to the soil and the exterior exposure. If rigid insulation is used in the cavity. Made of PVC. The size of horizontal reinforcement is determined by the structural requirements of the wall. Sash block is used to accept shear lug. It is a drainage wall system in that any water that penetrates the exterior brick wythe through wind-driven rain.
This system can be used as a bearing wall system supporting wood joists. Masonry Details 65 Type 1. The height of this type of brick wall bearing directly on the foundation should not exceed 25 ft 7. In addition to an open head joint for weep holes. Detailing Considerations Insulation can be placed either on the inside face of the concrete masonry wythe or in the cavity.
Insulation placed in the cavity can increase the differential movement between the block and the brick. To keep mortar. If it is placed in the cavity. For higher buildings. Grade Execution Lap joint reinforcement 6 in. Provide proper vertical control and expansion joints. Coordination Required The expected shortening of the concrete or steel frame should be calculated if these structural systems are used. Place in fully grouted concrete masonry unit cells.
Use adjustable ties if substantial differential vertical movement is expected or if bed joints of brick do not align with concrete masonry units. Do not use truss-type reinforcement. Masonry Details 67 out of the cavity. Do not use mortar that is stronger in compression than is required by the structural requirements of the job. Loose insulation or rigid insulation specially manufactured for placement in the cells of the concrete block may be used to provide additional insulation.
Solid facing brick: Keep all air spaces and expansion joints clear of mortar. Type M. Rigid insulation may be placed in the cavity. Hollow facing brick: Execution Fill all mortar joints completely. ASTM B Copper composites. Must not be subject to ultraviolet degradation.
Flexible membranes. Must not be subject to deterioration in contact with alkaline masonry mortars or sealants. Do not use asphalt-impregnated felt. Other proprietary products are also available. Use edge dams at openings. It can also be used as a non-load-bearing system with a poured-in-place concrete.
The maximum height of the brick bearing directly on the foundation in this type of cavity wall should not exceed 25 ft 7. Limitations of Use This detail and Sections and illustrate a low. Locate joint reinforcement below the bond beam and one course above the bond beam. If a low parapet is used. For low parapets. Copings should be of precast concrete. Low parapets are those extending 15 in. Mortar accelerators containing calcium chloride should not be used when the mortar may come in contact with reinforcing anchors and ties.
Horizontal expansion joints must be used to allow the frame to shorten independently of the frame. Detailing Considerations Both sides of a parapet wall should be constructed of the same material to minimize differential movement caused by weather and temperature acting on dissimilar materials. Masonry Details 71 Coordination Required The expected shortening of the concrete or steel frame.
Keep the height of the parapet to a minimum. Locate expansion joints in the coping to coincide with the wall expansion and control joints and add an extra expansion joint between those placed in the wall below. Avoid metal copings because of the difference in thermal movement between metal and brick. To minimize thermal bridging. Rake the joints of the coping and seal with elastomeric sealant.
The cavity should continue into the parapet. When the mortar has set. Provide twice as many control joints in the parapet as in the wall below. The soft joint should be a sealant over a compressible backer rod. Masonry Details 73 Coordination Required Expansion joints should be placed near the building corners to avoid displacement of the parapet.
Execution Install with a mortar joint at one end and a soft joint at the other end. Provide vents in the upper part of brick veneer to ventilate air if the wall is designed as a pressure-equalized rain screen. When installing the coping. Pitch toward the roof.
If reinforcing between the wythes is not needed. For resistance to water penetration. The space between the wythes. The size and spacing of the reinforcing depend on the structural requirements of the job. Embed the edge completely in the mortar joint. Execution In the soft joints of the coping. Oil-based calking should not be used. Masonry Details 75 Figure Masonry grouted wall 4 21 The foundation may be stepped at the outside face to minimize the amount of concrete visible above grade.
For composite walls. Extend vertical bars into the foundation as required by the structural design. Ultimate compressive strength 28 days of at least 2. Admixtures and additives for workability are not recommended. Keep all expansion joints clear of mortar. Masonry Details 77 Type M. The veneer can carry no loads other than its own weight. Wood framing may be used as a low-cost method of building brick veneer walls. Figure Brick veneer. The masonry is non-load-bearing and is attached to a suitable backup wall with an air space between.
Limitations of Use This detail does not include provisions for seismic design. Hot-dip galvanized. Provide wood studs 16 in. A minimum air space of at least 1 in. Premanufactured pieces are available for this purpose. Detail the total wall height and the height of openings to coordinate with the modular brick dimension.
Additional insulation may be provided by adding rigid board insulation outside of the studs. Windows should be attached either to the brick veneer or the backup wall. Local building codes may vary. Provide a vapor barrier on the warm side of the insulation.
Use concave or vee mortar joints to prevent water penetration. Plan grading to allow for clearance between the ground and weep holes. Coordination Required The width of the foundation should be at least as wide as the total wall assembly.
To account for tolerances in foundation construction. Masonry Details 79 Brick veneer walls over wood studs are generally limited to a maximum height of 30 ft mm. Detailing Considerations For most residential and small commercial structures. To keep mortar out of the cavity. Building brick: Do not use salvaged brick. Maximum spacing of 16 in.
Grade SW is recommended for use in freezing climates. Maximum vertical and horizontal spacing of 16 in. Type M recommended where brick is in contact with earth. Type N normally used. Standard plywood or particleboard sheathing may be substituted with building paper over.
Thicker insulation may be used as required by the climate. Provide one tie for each 1. If insulating or asphalt-impregnated sheathing is used. Masonry Details 81 If insulating sheathing is used. The backup wall must be designed to resist wind and seismic loads transferred from the brick. There has been considerable controversy concerning the advisability of using brick veneer on steel studs. This detail is used in commercial multistory construction where spans are greater than 8 ft mm and the use of residential brick veneer over wood studs does not apply.
Reported failures have included corrosion of screws used to attach the masonry ties to the studs. Additional vents may be placed along the top of the air cavity to help vent moisture and create a pressure-equalized air space. Most of these problems can be alleviated with proper detailing. Detailing Considerations Movement of the structural frame must be considered and provided for. The brick must not be subject to an axial load other than its own weight.
Closed-cell rigid insulation may be placed outside of the studs to provide additional insulation and to prevent thermal bridging through the metal studs. Under lateral load.
See Section for optional detailing.
Wicks should be at least 16 in. Flashing should be lapped at the ends and corners and sealed with mastic. Concrete frames should also be analyzed for movement due to creep.
The air barrier membrane should be continuous onto the foundation. See Section for the design of vertical control joints. If wick or tube weeps are used.
At building expansion joints. Horizontal joint reinforcing is not required in most cases.
Architect's Handbook of Construction Detailing
Vertical and horizontal joints for individual brick panels must accommodate moisture and thermal movement of the brick. Sheathing must be applied to both sides of the stud wall. The entire structure must be analyzed to determine potential movement and optimum location of movement joints. Steel studs should be located a minimum of 6 in. Vertical joints must be of compressible material to allow movement without concentrated stresses. Masonry Details 83 by inadequate stiffness of the stud wall.
The structural frame should be steel or reinforced concrete. Parapet walls should be avoided unless absolutely required. To avoid possible corrosion of screws attaching the ties to the steel studs. No mechanical play in excess of 0. In extreme climates. All vertical expansion joints should be carried through parapet walls. Various types of propriety mortar-management accessories are also available.
Secure to studs through sheathing. If used. No deformation over 0. Provide attachment of doors and windows to the backup wall separate from the veneer.
Execution Embed a minimum of 2 in. Type N recommended for expected wind loads less than 25 psf Pa. Limit brick height to 4 in. Type S recommended for expected wind loads over 25 psf Pa. Maximum vertical spacing of 18 in. Hollow brick: Masonry Details 85 One tie for each 2 ft2 0. Seal joints with self-adhering tape as approved by the sheathing manufacturer.
Maximum horizontal spacing of 32 in. If screwless anchors are used. Install additional ties approximately 8 in. Facing brick: Admixtures and additives for workability not recommended. Execution Horizontal bracing at midheight recommended.
Various types of proprietary mortar-management accessories are also available. This is the preferred detail because it adds insulation to the wall assembly. Figure is slightly different from Figs. Additional joint reinforcing is required in certain seismic zones. Walls with continuous ribbon window openings must be detailed differently.
Some type of sheathing must be attached to both sides of studs. Detailing Considerations Provide a vapor barrier on the inside of the stud wall if required by the climate or the building use. Provide slip joints at the tops of studs to prevent vertical load transfer from the structure.
This design is for isolated openings with brick surrounding all four sides. The exact horizontal position of the steel lintel will vary slightly from that shown in Fig. Screws used to fasten anchors to studs should be corrosion-resistant.
Coordination Required The air barrier should be continuous across the joint between the sheathing and the window. The air barrier or another water-resistant barrier applied over the sheathing should be lapped a minimum of 6 in.
Lintels must support a minimum of two-thirds of the brick wythe thickness. Materials 04 05 One tie for each 2 ft2 0.
Masonry Details 89 stainless steel screws are used with carbon steel anchors. Likely Failure Points See Sections and 2. Some building codes may require full adhesion if insulation is applied over paper-faced gypsum sheathing.
Polyisocyanurate foam board. Thickness as required for the total R-value needed. Glass-mat gypsum sheathing with joints and screws taped may be used in lieu of an air barrier. Additional sealing may be required between the sheathing and other openings. See Section for other requirements. Masonry Details 91 Flexible membranes. It is also used to provide a horizontal expansion joint.
Provisions for seismic design are not shown in this detail. The angle can also be bolted or welded to a steel frame. Shelf angles are usually not required on buildings of three stories or less 30 ft [9. The number of horizontal shelf angles should be kept to a minimum. Figure shows the shelf angle attached to a concrete structural frame with an insert.
The direction of slotting depends on the type of adjustment available with the concrete insert. Shelf angles do not need to be interrupted at vertical expansion joints. Flashing should be lapped at the ends and at corners and sealed with mastic. Sizing Horizontal Expansion Joints in Brick Masonry Brick masonry will move based on thermal expansion and contraction. Holes for the shelf angle connections should be slotted either horizontally or vertically to allow for adjustment.
Masonry Details 93 Figure does not show a layer of rigid insulation on the outside of the sheathing. If the insert provides for vertical adjustment. If this is done. Of course. Shims should extend the full height of the vertical leg of the shelf angle to avoid rotation of the angle under load.
The width of the expansion joint should be sized to accommodate the expected movement of the frame and the brick. In many eq. Detailing Considerations Shimming is usually required to compensate for the difference in tolerances between the structural frame and the veneer construction. The following formula can be used to calculate these effects: Total shimming thickness should not exceed 1 in.
A wedge-type insert may not be appropriate for seismic loading. Tack the weld bolt to the shelf angle when adjustment is complete. The insert must be oriented correctly and be perfectly level. Standard masonry coursing should be used to locate the shelf angle.
Type N for expected wind loads less than 25 psf Pa. Type S for expected wind loads over 25 psf Pa. Refer to Figs. Execution Use at every story or every other story to support brick. Masonry Details 95 Execution Fill all mortar joints completely. Locate the bolt hole near the top of the angle. Maximum shim depth of 1 in.
Spot weld together after adjustment. Provide vertically or horizontally slotted holes as required for adjustment. The shelf angle may be supported with appropriately sized structural steel studs or with other types of structural steel framing attached to the primary beam with lateral bracing to adequately. Keep the joint totally free of mortar. This detail is appropriate for continuous ribbon windows and allows easy accommodation of frame construction tolerances.
Masonry Details 97 Figure Shelf angle on steel framing 04 21 Limitations of Use Refer to Sections A minimum air cavity of 2 in. See Sections and for other likely failure points. Likely Failure Points Cracking of brick joints due to inadequate sizing of the stud backup wall and bracing.
If diagonal bracing is used for the lower portion of the steel stud framing. The steel angles and frame must be sized to prevent excessive rotation of the shelf angle. Brace as required by masonry panel size and lateral loading. Coordination Required Batt and rigid insulation thickness should be determined by the required R-value of the entire wall assembly.
Control joints may be required in long walls. Double-wythe composite and reinforced walls may also be used. To minimize the total space required between the back of the masonry and the steel framing and therefore the size of the shelf angle.
Provisions for seismic loads must be determined by the engineering design. Likely Failure Points Cracking in long. Limitations of Use Anchorage and reinforcing are shown diagrammatically only.
Detailing Considerations Correct width and reinforcing of the partition to support loads. This type of bearing partition is easy to construct. Remove debris and mortar droppings from cores prior to grouting.
Grade 40 or Masonry Details If reinforcement carries horizontal loads.
Type M may be required for unusually high loads. Various proprietary types of joist anchors may be used in addition to the one shown. Type N is the most common for normal loads on interior partitions.
The ceiling may be framed directly on the joists or suspended. Detailing Considerations In most cases. If walls need to be reinforced. Limitations of Use Refer to Section for limitations of use. Other thicknesses range from 4 in. Refer to Section for other information on AAC. Standard AAC blocks are 8 in. Many of the detailing requirements are similar to those of AAC panels. The blocks can be easily cut with hand or common power tools. Materials Refer to Section for material requirements.
Verify individual details with the manufacturer. Masonry Details Figure Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry 04 22 26 roof truss. Verify all structural requirements with the structural engineer and manufacturer.
A second coat should be applied to smooth and even out the surface. This construction and that shown in Figs. Masonry Details Figure Reinforced concrete masonry wall at grade 04 22 Intersecting bearing walls should be provided with an expansion joint and tied together with strap anchors spaced a maximum of 48 in. If the wall is not fully grouted.
Coordination Required Expansion joints should be located and detailed as shown in Section Provide a vapor barrier on the warm side of the insulation if required by climatic and interior conditions. Wall openings should be based on standard coursing measurements. If it is critical to maintain a dry interior. Select the type and thickness of insulation based on the required R-value of the wall assembly.
Lap joint reinforcement 6 in. Masonry Details Execution Fill all mortar joints completely. Although an open-web steel joist system with a concrete deck is shown. Bridging perpendicular to the direction of the joists may be anchored to the wall by welding to steel angles bolted to fully grouted cells.
Materials See Section for material requirements. Coordination Required Floor lines and window openings should be determined by the masonry coursing. For shear wall design. Detailing Considerations Steel joists should have a minimum of 4 in. A low parapet is shown. Masonry Details Figure Reinforced concrete masonry wall at parapet 04 22 With this detail. Detailing Considerations If stone coping is used instead of metal coping.
Slip joints in the metal coping should be provided where masonry control joints occur and at intermediate points as required by the coping material. Figure illustrates typical jamb and intermediate support conditions. Limitations of Use The maximum size for panels and support spacing is given in Table Verify seismic requirements of the local building code. Coordination Required The width and height of openings with allowance for expansion space should be an even multiple of the size of the glass block used.
Use special blocks to form 90 degree angles and include panel reinforcing into the corner block. Vapor barriers should be used under slabs to prevent moisture migration into the slab, to prevent shrinkage cracks, and to provide a barrier to radon penetration.
However, in order to prevent plastic and drying shrinkage caused by differential water loss between the top and bottom of the slab, the slab must be properly cured following ACI recommendations. Reinforcing and concrete strength should be selected based on the service requirements of the slab. Generally, lightly loaded slabs require a minimum compressive concrete strength of psi 24, kPa , while light industrial and commercial slabs require a compressive strength of psi 27, kPa.
Allowable Tolerances Level alignment tolerance is shown in Fig. For a complete discussion of the F-number system refer to ACI The orientation of the straightedge must be parallel, perpendicular, or at a 45 degree angle to the longest construction joint bounding the test surface. The F-number system, diagrammed in Fig. In most cases, a sophisticated instrument must be used that can take the measurements and perform the calculations necessary for determining the F numbers.
Refer to ACI for detailed requirements. It includes elevation tolerances as well as cross-sectional tolerances for elements such as columns, beams, walls, and slabs. Figure Cast-in-place concrete sectional tolerances 03 05 04 offset: For additional tolerances, refer to ACI If smaller tolerances are required, they should be clearly indicated in the contract documents and discussed with the contractor prior to construction.
Detailing Considerations In some cases tolerances may accumulate, resulting in a wider variation from true measurement than that due to individual tolerances alone. In general, higher accuracy requires a higher construction cost. Coordination Required If other materials are being used with or attached to the concrete, the expected tolerances of the other materials must be known so that allowance can be made for both.
Benchmarks and control points should be agreed on by the contractor and architect prior to construction and should be maintained throughout construction. Refer to Sections and for tolerances of precast concrete. Allowable Tolerances The various sectional tolerances are shown diagrammatically in Fig.
Note that the level alignment of the top surface of formed slabs and other formed surfaces is measured before the removal of shoring. There is no requirement for slabs on structural steel or precast concrete. The minimum number of samples that must be taken is one per 10, ft2 m2. Limitations of Use The tolerances shown in Fig. Concrete Details If smaller tolerances are required, they should be clearly indicated in the contract documents and discussed with the contractor prior to construction.
Generally speaking, higher accuracy requires a higher construction cost. Coordination Required If other materials are being used with or attached to the concrete construction, the expected tolerances of the other materials must be known so that allowance can be made for both. There are dozens of different styles and sizes of waterstops made from several types of materials to suit particular situations.
Waterstops are made for two basic types of joints: Figure shows two typical types of joints. A centerbulb waterstop is shown in the working joint in Fig. For a nonworking joint, as shown in Fig. The dumbbell shape shown here holds the waterstop in place and provides a longer path for water to travel across the joint, improving its watertightness.
If a great deal of movement is expected, a U-shaped, tear-web center section can be selected, as shown in Fig. Detailing Considerations Most waterstops are either 6 in. Likely Failure Points Splitting of the joint due to the use of an incorrect type of waterstop for the movement expected Leaking due to honeycombing near the seal caused by displacement of the waterstop during placing and consolidation of the concrete Leaking caused by incomplete or improper splicing Leaking caused by contamination of the waterstop by form coatings Materials 03 15 13 WATERSTOP Waterstops for general construction are typically made from polyvinyl chloride PVC , styrene butadiene rubber SBR , and neoprene.
Other materials are available, including metal, which are resistant to certain types of chemicals or which are more appropriate for special uses. The width of the waterstop should not be greater than the thickness of the wall.
Control joints, also called contraction joints, are used to induce cracking in preselected locations when the slab shortens due to drying, shrinking, and temperature changes.
For lightly loaded slabs, a minimum thickness of 4 in. For most light industrial and commercial work, slab thicknesses of 5 in. Limitations of Use The detail shown is for lightly loaded and moderately loaded interior and exterior slabs. Verify the size and spacing of rebars, if required, with a structural engineer. Detailing Considerations Control joints may be formed by sawcutting shortly after the slab hardens as shown in Fig.
Slab sections formed with control joints should be square or nearly square. For sidewalks or driveways control joints should be spaced at intervals approximately equal to the width of the slab, but walks or drives wider than about 12 ft 3. If control joints will be visible in the completed construction, their location should be planned to coincide with lines of other building elements, such as column centerlines and other joints. Isolation and construction joints can also serve as control joints.
Seal control joints to prevent spalling of the concrete. In most cases, a gravel subbase should be placed under the slab to provide drainage. Reinforcing and concrete strength should be selected based on service requirements of the slab. The subgrade should be compacted to 95 percent of standard Proctor density prior to placing the subbase.
Likely Failure Points Cracking of the slab in undesirable locations if control joints are placed farther apart than 20 ft 6. Place welded wire reinforcement in the top one-third of the slab. If fabric is carried through control joints, cut every other wire to ensure that the cracking will occur at the joint.
Reinforcement is often not used where frequent control joints are used. Welded wire reinforcement should extend to about 2 in. Permeance of less than 0. Barrier should not be punctured during construction activities.
Edges should be lapped a minimum of 6 in. Thoroughly clean the joint of dirt and debris prior to application of the sealant. Isolation joints, also called expansion joints, are used to structurally separate the slab from other building elements to accommodate differential movement. For most commercial work, slab thicknesses of 5 in. Limitations of Use The detail shown here is for lightly loaded and moderately loaded interior and exterior slabs. If required, verify the size and spacing of rebars with a structural engineer.
The width of isolation joints should be sized to accommodate the expected movement of the slab, allowing for about a 50 percent maximum compression of the joint. Thoroughly clean the joint of dirt and debris prior to application of sealant. Construction joints provide stopping points for construction activities. A construction joint may also serve as a control or isolation joint.
Limitations of Use The details shown here are for lightly loaded and moderately loaded interior and exte rior slabs. Verify the size and spacing of dowels, if required, with a structural engineer.
Butt-type construction joints those without reinforcing dowels, or keyed joints should be limited to lightly loaded slabs 4 in. Detailing Considerations Construction joints should not be placed closer than 5 ft mm to any other parallel joint. Concrete Details Figure Slab-on-grade construction joint 03 30 09 1: The top of the joint should be given a slight radius edge to avoid spalling of the concrete. Minimum 16 in. Execution Space 12 in.
A dowel extending into the second pour must be coated with bond breaker. Align and support dowels during pouring. Temperature reinforcement is often not used where frequent control joints are used. As an alternative, Z-shaped furring strips can be attached to the concrete. However, furring attached directly to the concrete creates a thermal bridge and reduces the overall R-value slightly. Depending on the building use, separate framing is useful to provide space for additional insulation as well as space for electrical service and plumbing pipes.
In both cases a window jamb is shown, but the door framing is similar. One of the detailing problems with cast-in-place concrete is accommodating construction tolerances, both for the opening size and for the window or door, which is usually steel or aluminum. ACI tolerances allow for an opening to be oversize by 1 in. Figure b illustrates the use of a notch in the concrete to account for construction tolerance issues.
Although notching the concrete increases the formwork costs slightly, it accommodates tolerances and maintains a uniform joint width for sealant. Limitations of Use These details do not include requirements for the concrete wall. Refer to Section and ACI requirements for formwork, concrete composition, and reinforcement. If joints in the concrete are well sealed, the concrete will act as an air barrier.
Refer to Section for more information on air barriers.Slotted holes. CiteULike About this book Significantly updated with revisions to nearly all plus details, this second edition of Architect's Handbook of Construction Detailing provides architects, engineers, interior designers, contractors, and other building professionals with all of the common construction details, materials information, and detailing concepts used throughout the industry. The minimum number of samples that must be taken is one per 10, ft2 m2.
In long walls. They are usually located at footings.
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