This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number . 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D on Soil and Rock. D()e2 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils ( Withdrawn ) Format, Pages, Price. PDF, 8, $, ADD TO CART. Clayey Sand w/a little gravel (SC). Silty Sand (SM). Silty Sand w/a little gravel ( SC). *. Grain Size Distribution ASTM D 9/12/ Report Date: Test Date.
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". No. ". No. 1/2". No. 3/8". Summary of Procedure for ASTM D - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Standard Test Methods for. Test Comment: Sample Description: Moist, black silty sand. Sample Comment : Particle Size Analysis - ASTM D printed 11/26/ AM. 0.
The hydrometer is removed slowly and placed back into the control cylinder. Very gently spin it in control cylinder to remove any particles that may have adhered. Engineering Data Analysis: Hydrometer Analysis: 1 Apply meniscus correction to the actual hydrometer reading. Engineering Table 1. Engineering Table 2. Engineering Table 3. A third limit, called the shrinkage limit, is used occasionally.
The Atterberg limits are based on the moisture content of the soil. The liquid limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil changes from a plastic to a viscous fluid state. The shrinkage limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil volume will not reduce further if the moisture content is reduced. Engineering A wide variety of soil engineering properties have been correlated to the liquid and plastic limits, and these Atterberg limits are also used to classify a fine-grained soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system or AASHTO system.
Assume that the soil was previously passed though a No. Thoroughly mix the soil with a small amount of distilled water until it appears as a smooth uniform paste. Cover the dish with cellophane to prevent moisture from escaping. The point on the cup that comes in contact with the base should rise to a height of 10 mm. Engineering 10 mm high and should be used as a gage.
Practice using the cup and determine the correct rate to rotate the crank so that the cup drops approximately two times per second. Squeeze the soil down to eliminate air pockets and spread it into the cup to a depth of about 10 mm at its deepest point. The soil pat should form an approximately horizontal surface.
The tool should remain perpendicular to the surface of the cup as groove is being made. Use extreme care to prevent sliding the soil relative to the surface of the cup. If the number of drops exceeds 50, then go directly to step eight and do not record the number of drops, otherwise, record the number of drops on the data sheet.
The sample should include the soil on both sides of where the groove came into contact. Place the soil into a moisture can cover it. Engineering mass, remove the lid, and place the can into the oven.
Summary of Procedure for ASTM D
Leave the moisture can in the oven for at least 16 hours. Place the soil remaining in the cup into the porcelain dish. Clean and dry the cup on the apparatus and the grooving tool. Add a small amount of distilled water to increase the water content so that the number of drops required to close the groove decrease.
One of the trials shall be for a closure requiring 25 to 35 drops, one for closure between 20 and 30 drops, and one trial for a closure requiring 15 to 25 drops. Determine the water content from each trial by using the same method used in the first laboratory. Remember to use the same balance for all weighing. Analysis: Liquid Limit: 1 Calculate the water content of each of the liquid limit moisture cans after they have been in the oven for at least 16 hours.
Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted points and determine the liquid limit LL as the water content at 25 drops. Engineering Liquid Limit Determination Sample no.
The plastic limit PL is the water content, in percent, at which a soil can no longer be deformed by rolling into 3. The plastic limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil changes from a semi-solid to a plastic flexible state. A wide variety of soil engineering properties have been correlated to the liquid and plastic limits, and these Atterberg limits are also used to classify a fine-grained soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system or AASHTO system.
Test Procedure: Plastic Limit: 1 Weigh the remaining empty moisture cans with their lids, and record the respective weights and can numbers on the data sheet. Roll the mass between the palm or the fingers and the glass plate. Use sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a thread of uniform diameter by using about 90 strokes per minute. A stroke is one complete motion of the hand forward and back to the starting position. The thread shall be deformed so that its diameter reaches 3.
Knead and reform the pieces into ellipsoidal masses and re-roll them. Engineering gathering together, kneading and re-rolling until the thread crumbles under the pressure required for rolling and can no longer be rolled into a 3.
If the can does not contain at least 6 grams of soil, add soil to the can from the next trial See Step 6. Immediately weigh the moisture can containing the soil, record its mass, remove the lid, and place the can into the oven. Analysis: Plastic Limit: 1 Calculate the water content of each of the plastic limit moisture cans after they have been in the oven for at least 16 hours. Check to see if the difference between the water contents is greater than the acceptable range of two results 2.
Soil Hydrometer to ASTM D
Report the liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index. Engineering Plastic Limit Determination Sample no. The compactive effort is the amount of mechanical energy that is applied to the soil mass. Several different methods are used to compact soil in the field, and some examples include tamping, kneading, vibration, and static load compaction.
The test is also known as the Proctor test. Each of these tests can be performed in three different methods as outlined in the attached Table 1. In the Standard Proctor Test, the soil is compacted by a 5. The mold is filled with three equal layers of soil, and each layer is subjected to 25 drops of the hammer. The Modified Proctor Test is identical to the Standard Proctor Test except it employs, a 10 lb hammer falling a distance of 18 inches, and uses five equal layers of soil instead of three.
There are two types of compaction molds used for testing. If the larger mold is used each soil layer must receive 56 blows instead of 25 See Table 1.
An extremely important task of geotechnical engineers is the performance and analysis of field control tests to assure that compacted fills are meeting the prescribed design specifications. In general, most engineering properties, such as the strength, stiffness, resistance to shrinkage, and imperviousness of the soil, will improve by increasing the soil density.
The optimum water content is the water content that results in the greatest density for a specified compactive effort. Compacting at water contents higher than wet of the optimum water content results in a relatively dispersed soil structure parallel particle orientations that is weaker, more ductile, less pervious, softer, more susceptible to shrinking, and less susceptible to swelling than soil compacted dry of optimum to the same density. The soil compacted lower than dry of the optimum water content typically results in a flocculated soil structure random particle orientations that has the opposite characteristics of the soil compacted wet of the optimum water content to the same density.
Test Procedure: 1 Depending on the type of mold you are using obtain a sufficient quantity of air-dried soil in large mixing pan. For the 4-inch mold take approximately 10 lbs, and for the 6-inch mold take roughly 15 lbs.
Pulverize the soil and run it through the 4 sieve. Engineering 3 Compute the amount of initial water to add by the following method: a Assume water content for the first test to be 8 percent.
Remember that a gram of water is equal to approximately one milliliter of water. The number of drops of the rammer per layer is also dependent upon the type of mold used See Table 1. This set consists of the following sieves: 3-in.
Dimensions of both hydrometers are the same, the scale being the only item of difference. The inside diameter shall be such that the mL mark is 36 6 2 cm from the bottom on the inside. Such a device is illustrated in Fig. In cases where the work is performed in a room at an automatically controlled constant temperature, the water bath is not necessary.
Dispersing Agent 4. NOTE 7—Solutions of this salt, if acidic, slowly revert or hydrolyze back to the orthophosphate form with a resultant decrease in dispersive action. Solutions should be prepared frequently at least once a month or adjusted to pH of 8 or 9 by means of sodium carbonate. Bottles containing solutions should have the date of preparation marked on them.
D — 63 FIG. The water for a hydrometer test shall be brought to the temperature that is expected to prevail during the hydrometer test. For example, if the sedimentation cylinder is to be placed in the water bath, the distilled or demineralized water to be used shall be brought to the temperature of the controlled water bath; or, if the sedimentation cylinder is used in a room with controlled temperature, the water for the test shall be at the temperature of the room.
Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (Withdrawn )
Small variations of temperature do not introduce differences that are of practical signi? Test Sample 5. During the preparation procedure the sample is divided into two portions.
One portion contains only particles retained on the No. The mass of air-dried soil selected for purpose of tests, as prescribed in Practice D, shall be sufficient to yield quantities for mechanical analysis as follows: 5.
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D — 63 Nominal Diameter of Largest Particles, in. From these two masses the percentages retained and passing the No. NOTE 8—A check on the mass values and the thoroughness of pulverization of the clods may be secured by weighing the portion passing the No. Procedure 6. In no case turn or manipulate fragments in the sample through the sieve by hand. When mechanical sieving is used, test the thoroughness of sieving by using the hand method of sieving as described above.
At the end of weighing, the sum of the masses retained on all the sieves used should equal closely the original mass of the quantity sieved. Determination of Composite Correction for Hydrometer Reading 7. A dispersing agent is used in the water, however, and the speci? The amount of the inaccuracy increases as the variation from the standard temperature increases. Since it is not possible to secure readings of soil suspensions at the bottom of the meniscus, readings must be taken at the top and a correction applied.
Measurement of the composite corrections may be made at two temperatures spanning the range of expected test temperatures, and corrections for the intermediate temperatures calculated assuming a straight-line relationship between the two observed values. Place the liquid in a sedimentation cylinder and the cylinder in the constant-temperature water bath, set for one of the two temperatures to be used.
When the temperature of the liquid becomes constant, insert the hydrometer, and, after a short interval to permit the hydrometer to come to the temperature of the liquid, read the hydrometer at the top of the meniscus formed on the stem. For hydrometer H the composite correction is the difference between this reading and one; for hydrometer H it is the difference between the reading and zero.
Bring the liquid and the hydrometer to the other temperature to be used, and secure the composite correction as before. Hygroscopic Moisture 8. Record the masses. Dispersion of Soil Sample 9. When the soil is mostly sand the sample should be approximately g. Stir until the soil is thoroughly wetted. Allow to soak for at least 16 h. If stirring apparatus A is used, transfer the soil-water slurry from the beaker into the special dispersion cup shown in Fig.
Add distilled or demineralized water, if necessary, so that the cup is more than half full. Stir for a period of 1 min. D — 63 NOTE 9—A large size syringe is a convenient device for handling the water in the washing operation. Other devices include the wash-water bottle and a hose with nozzle connected to a pressurized distilled water tank. Sieve Analysis Transfer the material on the No. To obtain the mass passing the No. To secure the total mass of soil passing the 3?
For the remaining sieves, continue the calculations in the same manner. Hygroscopic Moisture Correction Factor It is a number less than one, except when there is no hygroscopic moisture.
Percentages of Soil in Suspension This value is the weight W in the equation for percentage remaining in suspension. A air gage must be on the line between the cup and the control valve.
Open the control valve so that the gage indicates 1 psi 7 kPa pressure Note Transfer the soil-water slurry from the beaker to the air-jet dispersion cup by washing with distilled or demineralized water. Add distilled or demineralized water, if necessary, so that the total volume in the cup is mL, but no more. NOTE 10—The initial air pressure of 1 psi is required to prevent the soil-water mixture from entering the air-jet chamber when the mixture is transferred to the dispersion cup.
Disperse the soil according to the following schedule: Plasticity Index Under 5 6 to 20 Over 20 Dispersion Period, min 5 10 15 Soils containing large percentages of mica need be dispersed for only 1 min. After the dispersion period, reduce the gage pressure to 1 psi preparatory to transfer of soil-water slurry to the sedimentation cylinder.Hydrometer Test Procedure 6.
Small variations of temperature do not introduce differences that are of practical signi? The results from the two types of devices differ in magnitude, depending upon soil type, leading to marked differences in particle size distribution, especially for sizes? In the Standard Proctor Test, the soil is compacted by a 5. NOTE 7—Solutions of this salt, if acidic, slowly revert or hydrolyze back to the orthophosphate form with a resultant decrease in dispersive action.
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