Networking Notes in Hindi - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices. Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. -Each of the . कंप्यूटर नेटवर्किंग हिंदी मे सीखे Computer hardware and networking notes in hindi pdf कंप्यूटर हार्डवेयर क्या होता.
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An Introduction to Computer Networks. Release 1 An Overview of Networks. Layers. archive of html files, computerescue.info format, and in other formats as may prove useful. Note that . Progress Notes. This work. Records 1 - 30 This page contains list Notes on Computer Networks (PDF 93P) Bob book in hindi pdf reinstall. networking tutorial how to use computer network. Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Practice was written by Dr. Olivier Bonaventure of the. Université catholique de Louvain for teaching Local Area.
Workstations which are stationary desktops are also usually connected by a cable to the network, although the cost of wireless adapters has dropped to the point that, when installing workstations in an existing facility with inadequate wiring, it can be easier and less expensive to use wireless for a desktop.
See the Topology , Cabling , and Hardware sections of this tutorial for more information on the configuration of a LAN.
Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of global network.
Using a WAN, schools in Florida can communicate with places like Tokyo in a matter of seconds, without paying enormous phone bills. Two users a half-world apart with workstations equipped with microphones and a webcams might teleconference in real time. A WAN is complicated. It uses multiplexers, bridges, and routers to connect local and metropolitan networks to global communications networks like the Internet.
Advantages of Installing a School Network User access control. Modern networks almost always have one or more servers which allows centralized management for users and for network resources to which they have access. User credentials on a privately-owned and operated network may be as simple as a user name and password, but with ever-increasing attention to computing security issues, these servers are critical to ensuring that sensitive information is only available to authorized users.
Information storing and sharing. Computers allow users to create and manipulate information.
Local area network
Information takes on a life of its own on a network. The network provides both a place to store the information and mechanisms to share that information with other network users. Administrators, instructors, and even students and guests can be connected using the campus network.
The school can provide services, such as registration, school directories, course schedules, access to research, and email accounts, and many others. Remember, network services are generally provided by servers.
The school can provide network users with access to the internet, via an internet gateway. Computing resources. The school can provide access to special purpose computing devices which individual users would not normally own. For example, a school network might have high-speed high quality printers strategically located around a campus for instructor or student use. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture.
A ROM, stores such instructions that are required to start a computer. This operation is referred to as bootstrap. The different types of ROM are given below. The MROM cannot be programmed by the user. EPROM is erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times. Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 milliseconds. Secondary Storage External Storage Devices Floppy diskettes, hard disk, tapes and optical disks come under the category of external storage devices or ancillary storage devices.
These devices are very sensitive to environmental conditions humidity and temperature as well as to external magnetic fields and need to be stored carefully. Information on a floppy disk is recorded in the magnetized states of particles of iron oxides evenly placed upon concentric circles known as tracks.
It contains a stack of metal platters, each coated with iron oxide, that spin on a spindle and the entire unit is encased in a sealed chamber.
C Magnetic Tape This is plastic tape, usually made of Mylar that is coated with iron oxide, thereby enabling the introduction writing ; retention memory and reading of magnetically recorded information.
The best use of tape storage is for data that you do not use very often. If a peripheral device is disconnected, the computer will still be able to work; only functions performed by this peripheral device will not be available. Here are the most used types of peripheral devices: A Keyboard The most common and very popular input device which helps in inputting data to the computer. It consists of keys that are capable of inputting alphabets, numbers and special characters.
You can also navigate using the keyboard and perform shortcut functions.
B Mouse Mouse is the most popular pointing device and cursor-control device having a small palm size box with a round ball at its base which senses the movement of mouse and sends corresponding signals to CPU when the mouse buttons are pressed.
It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form.
The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of pixels. D Printer Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper. Impact Printers: The impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the paper. Non-Impact Printers: Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon.
A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.
Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission.
Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a digital subscriber line technology. Firewalls[ edit ] A firewall is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks. Message flows A-B in the presence of a router R , red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network.
In a protocol stack also see the OSI model , each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media.
The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking. This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user's personal computer when the user is surfing the web.
Communication protocols have various characteristics. They may be connection-oriented or connectionless , they may use circuit mode or packet switching , and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing.
There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below.
The complete IEEE protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities. The protocols have a flat addressing scheme. They operate mostly at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model. It is standardized by IEEE It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by data-gram transmission at the Internet protocol IP level.
At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 IPv4 and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM Pulse-Code Modulation format.It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form.
Arshad Hussain. Shiv Ram Krishna. Really very helping Thankyou so much. Ports -An IP address identifies a host machine on the Internet. Cabling, network cards, routers, bridges, firewalls, wireless access points, and software can get expensive, and the installation would certainly require the services of technicians.
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