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Estructuras Para Arquitectos (Spanish Edition)
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The behavior of vaults is based on the interconnection of parallel arcs that transmit the same stress on continuous supports under the generatrices; they are usually constructed with materials resistant to compression and their thickness can sometimes be considerable. On the other hand, cylindrical shells behave in a similar way to longitudinal prismatic beams, although characterized with a curved profile and reduced thickness, and are capable of covering large spans without continuous lateral supports and with a predominance of bending stresses.
Thus, when a cylindrical shell comes under load, even under the action of its own weight, the generatrices get deformed, curving in such a way that the area located in the lower part of the shell works with tension and the upper part works with compression Figure 2 b.
If the thickness of the shell is small in relation to its length, this flexion is reduced and has little influence on its general behavior. From the point of view of construction, cylindrical shells can be made of reinforced concrete or reinforced ceramics. In both cases, the manufacturing process follows the same sequence: formwork from straight molds since it is a developable surface , reinforcing continuous or reticular depending on whether it is in concrete or ceramics, respectively , concreting complete or on the small beams in the same cases , and uncasing.
Depending on the number of shells and their dimensions, it can be a repetitive or simultaneous process, where it is possible to reuse the molds, which always implies savings in the quantity of constituent materials.
The diffusion of this system in the following years was due to a well-planned commercial strategy that led Dywidag to build laminar structures in several European countries, and even in Latin America: subsidiaries of this German company based in Uruguay and Argentina built at least seven concrete membranes in the period between and , either through direct contracting or through technical consulting during the construction process.
Estructuras Para Arquitectos
In any case, between and , the systems patented by Dywidag were used in at least 35 countries, and reached more than , m2 of covered area May, In the specific field of the structural analysis of cylindrical shells, the works of Knud W. Johansen and Hegel Lundgren were added to those developed by Dywidag engineers. Lundgren made use of classical equations in the analysis of beam bending in order to determine longitudinal tensions, and combined them with an analysis of the arc-shaped part of the structure to find the value of transverse bending moments.
His explanation was developed based on the case of a semi-cylindrical vault in reinforced concrete of 84 m long, 40 m wide, and 7. These articles divulged in the country the methods developed by the German engineer Adolf Pucher, who, in addition to having worked for Dywidag, would be well known in Latin America for his textbook on reinforced concrete Pucher, , used in the training of civil engineers. For his part, in , Henry Cornelissen, engineer and professor at the Universidad Nacional, described in the same journal new modes of analysis for cylindrical shells, based on two outstanding methods for the solution: those of Dr.
Finsterwalder and Dr. As examples, the author mentions the roofs of the Budapest Market Hall , with membranes of By then, many of the buildings designed by Torroja were already recognized by the international community, among which his project of a recessed dome with a curvature radius of However, his most famous project would be the roof for the La Zarzuela Racecourse in Madrid, equipped with double curvature shells, without ribs, that extends In this last project, which unfortunately was partially destroyed during the Spanish Civil War, Torroja had deliberately eliminated the possibility of constructing a thick prismatic beam under the line where the two laminar vaults were joined Figure 4.
This phenomenon coincides with an interest aroused by this design in engineers and architects in Colombia, who already had the mathematical apparatus necessary for its structural calculation, and who aimed to develop an experimental work in the construction field in order to achieve practical and versatile structures at a low cost. It is no coincidence that the interest of Colombian professionals in the design and construction of light roofs with large spans came at a time when the country was beginning an industrialization process in its most important cities.
Such situation made it necessary to design new spaces with good lighting and ventilation conditions, but without intermediate supports that would hinder the equipment, and especially at a low cost so that its construction would be viable. Case studies in Colombian architecture The interest in laminar structures has already been demonstrated in the academic context of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, which was manifested in articles written by foreign professors and collaborators who worked at the university; however, in the field of practice, the first constructions of this type were slow and progressive.
These two professionals were responsible for the first building covered with cylindrical shells in the country: the Girardot market. The Girardot market Designed by Leopoldo Rother starting from , its construction was completed in It is a building conceived as a large horizontal plane that provides shade for market vendors protecting them from solar radiation, almost without the presence of enclosing walls, which allows the air to circulate freely through the building Figure 5.
In effect, the roof plan is formed by cylindrical shells that are 7 m long, 2.
In their longest direction, each of the 22 rows of membranes aligns 9 shells in such a way that, for the observer, they acquire a continuous length of 63 m.
The upper edge of these beams is horizontal, while the lower is wavy and it extends to the valley formed between the shells, where it reaches a total height of 1. The width of the beams is always 40 cm, and in the transverse direction they are connected by section braces of 25 x 50 cm, separated by 7.
At the ends, the beams adopt a curved profile, which prevents them from poking over the edge of the roof plane Figure 6.
Finally, the drainage system designed for the roof deserves a special mention. Given that rainwater got accumulated in the valleys between the membranes, it was necessary to design a system of tubular downpipes attached to the V-shaped columns, after giving to the exterior finish of said valleys a slope to conduct the water towards the scuppers.
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Since not all the valleys coincided with the upper end of a downpipe, horizontal channels crossed the lower part of the membranes over some of the transverse axes, and altered the formal cleaning of the lower face of the roof Figure 7. Source: Original plan, dated July 27, Over the years, deficiencies of the rainwater evacuation system have contributed to the deterioration of the building, and caused pathologies that affect its structural integrity in the long term.
The project of this new building demanded several independent buildings Figure 8 organized around a large maneuvering yard: [a] a two-story office building located on the main facade, [b] a covered area dedicated to fuel supply, [c] washing and greasing area, [d] machinery workshops; and [e] bathrooms and warehouses.
Building [a] had two stories and a rectangular plan covered with a single membrane 4.Photographs of these last two buildings can be found in various issues of the journal Proa. Regarding the limitations of the study, there are aspects not addressed in this text that could be developed at a later stage and are considered important; these are: analysis of the conservation state, analysis of the mechanical behavior under current conditions, and characterization of their constituent materials.
ESTRUCTURAS PARA ARQUITECTOS MARIO SALVADORI Y ROBERT HELLER PDF
Are controlled by microprocessors. Mario Salvadori ; Robert Heller. If the thickness of the shell is small in relation to its length, this flexion is reduced and has little influence on its general behavior. At the ends, the beams adopt a curved profile, which prevents them from poking over the edge of the roof plane Figure 6. These books contain exercises and tutorials to improve your practical skills, at all levels!
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