WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. 4. 1. Plants, Medicinal. 2. Angiosperms. 3. Medicine, Traditional. I. WHO Consultation on Selected. SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS. OF CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS. Research and Compilation. Mohammad Abdul Motaleb. Editors. Mohammed Kamal. arguments. Please cite this paper as: Jamshidi-Kia F, Lorigooini Z, Amini-Khoei H . Medicinal plants: past history and future perspective. J Herbmed Pharmacol.
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Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education. The human needs on medicinal plants are discussed. Drug therapy and drug. tion about medicinal plants and their uses and are not intended as a there have been books on medicinal plants published locally, none can. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan and others published Medicinal Plants (Importance and Uses).
Methods 2. This district has 17 kebeles which are characterized by undulating highlands in the north and lowlands in the south Figure 1. Figure 1: Map showing study area.
Selection of Study Sites A reconnaissance survey of the study area was conducted from June 25 to July 5, The study sites were selected depending on recommendation from elders, local authorities, and altitudinal range. Thus, the study was carried out in eight kebeles from two agro-climatic zones. Selection of Participants A total of 60 participants 41 men and 19 women were selected randomly from the representative kebeles.
Representative common participants and knowledgeable traditional medicine practitioners key participants of Berbere district were selected using random and purposive sampling approaches, respectively, following Martin [ 12 ]. Twenty key participants were selected purposively and systematically based on the recommendations of knowledgeable elders, local authorities, and development agents.
The selection of key participants was also based on the quality of explanations that particular participants gave during an interview. Local healers automatically qualified as key participants being traditional experts who are guardians of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical Data Collection Ethnobotanical data were collected from July 6, , to September 5, The standard data collection methods [ 12 — 14 ] have been followed to document indigenous knowledge of the local community on health, use, conservation, and threats of medicinal plants.
The techniques employed for data collection were semistructured interviews, group discussion, guided field walks, and observations with participants. Information was carefully recorded during an interview with a participant. The interview was guided to cover the key topics on the checklist. The place and the time for interview were set based on the interest of the participants. Field observations were performed with the help of local guides on the morphological features and habitats of each medicinal plant species in the field.
Brief group discussions were made with participants regarding the medicinal plants in the study area. The discussions were conducted on threats to medicinal plants, conservation of the medicinal plants, and transferability of knowledge in the community. Letter of consent was taken from Jimma University, prior to the data collections. Verbal consents were also obtained from the participants by performed group discussions about the objectives of the study prior to the interviews, and all data were collected through their oral consents.
Voucher Specimen Collection The voucher specimens were collected onsite during guided field walk, numbered, pressed, dried, and deep frozen for identification. Identification of specimens was carried out both in the field and in the herbarium. Identification was also carried out using Flora of Ethiopia comparing with already identified specimens. Data Analysis The collected ethnobotanical data were entered into Excel spreadsheet and summarized using descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, tables, and graphs.
Preference ranking and paired comparison were computed following [ 13 ]. Preference ranking was conducted for five important medicinal plants used to treat stomachache.
Ten randomly selected participants from total key participants were participated in this exercise to identify the best preferred medicinal plants for treatment of stomachache. In paired comparison, ten participants were selected and asked to choose the best item from every pair according to personal perception in treating wound.
A total rank of paired comparison was obtained by summing the number of times each item was chosen. An item with the highest frequency of choices had the highest score. Direct matrix ranking is used to compare multipurpose uses of a given plant species based on information gathered from participants, number of multipurpose species were selected out of the total medicinal plants, and use diversities of these plants were listed for four randomly selected key participants to assign use values to each species.
Informants consensus factor ICF was calculated for each category to identify the agreements of the participants on reported cures for the group of ailments. The ICF was calculated as follows [ 15 ].
Results and Discussion 3. Medicinal Plants of the Study Area A total of 70 medicinal plant species belonging to 56 genera and 39 families were used by the local communities to treat 42 human ailments Table 1. Euphorbiaceae was the leading family with eight species Various studies conducted in Ethiopia reported that most of medicinal plants are being harvested from noncultivated areas.
For instance, the study conducted by [ 16 ] indicated that the highest number This observation is a good indication of the fact that the local people have not yet started cultivating most of the plant species they are using as remedies. Growth Form of Medicinal Plants The growth form analysis of medicinal plants revealed that shrubs constitute the highest proportion being represented by 34 species Figure 2: The habits growth forms of medicinal plants used to treat human ailments in the study area.
This finding shows that the most represented life forms of medicinal plants in the study area were shrubs followed by herbs. Similar findings were also reported in the earlier works in Ethiopia.
For instance, [ 19 ] identified The more recent studies conducted by [ 21 , 22 ] also reported the dominance of shrubs for preparation of traditional medicines. However, other findings [ 18 , 23 — 25 ] indicated that herbs were the most frequently used plant categories. Plant Parts Used to Treat Human Diseases People of the study area harvest different plant parts for the preparation of traditional remedies e. In the study area, 43 species This is because it is believed that roots contain more concentration of the active ingredients.
Figure 3: Plant parts used in human traditional medicine. The finding of the roots as the contributor of higher number of plant species used for medicinal purpose than other plants parts is in line with similar study conducted by [ 17 ], in which roots In this regard, [ 27 ] have indicated that plant harvest involving roots, rhizomes, bulb, bark, and stem has a serious effect on the survival of the mother plant in its habitat.
However, the findings of [ 18 , 21 , 28 — 30 ] indicated that traditional medicinal preparations mainly involve the use of leaves. As leaves of medicinal plant species were also reported to be harvested for most remedy preparations next to roots, collection of leaves could be promoted as a more sustainable method since in most cases at least many leaves are left over on the parent plant [ 24 ].
Method of Preparation, Dosage, and Administration In the collection of data concerning the preparation of medicine, participants reported various skills associated with herbal preparation. Similarly, various research findings reported the use of single plant species or parts for traditional remedy preparation [ 22 , 23 , 31 ]. The potency of using a mixture of different plant or plant parts increased compared to using a single plant to cure a disease is evident.
The majority of the remedies The dependency of local people on fresh materials is mostly due to the effectiveness of fresh medicinal plants in treatment as the contents are not lost before use compared to the dried forms.
The local communities employ various methods of preparation of traditional medicines for different types of diseases. The preparations vary based on the type and actual site of disease treated. The principal methods of remedy preparation were reported to be through crushing, which accounted for 30 preparations Crushing as the most common mode of preparation is in agreement with the findings of [ 20 , 34 ] who noted that the principal method of remedy preparation was through crushing.
However, [ 27 ] in a similar study on people of Wonago District reported that powdering was a dominant method of preparation of remedy.
Figure 4: Mode of preparation of human medicinal plants in the study area. Medicinal plants were applied through different routes of administration Table 1. In the study area, the substantial proportions of prescriptions were administered orally This result is in line with the findings of [ 29 , 32 , 35 ].
Internal ailments were commonly treated by making the patient drink herbal preparations; tooth infection was treated by crushing and applies on the remedial plant part on the tooth surface; skin infections such as ringworm were treated by creaming herbal preparations on an infected skin. Concerning the dosage, local people of the study area used various units of measurement such as finger length e.
For human disease treatment, the smallest number is one and the highest is 7 for the case of leaves. In the case of palm measurement units, the lowest is half palm and the highest is 3 palms depending on the age of the patients. The lack of precise dosage is one of the drawbacks of traditional medicinal plants [ 33 , 36 ]. Tip part of the index figure is commonly used as a measurement of dose [ 37 ].
According to respondents, preparations were prescribed to patients differently for different age groups, sex, and other conditions. The dosage prescription for children was mostly lower than for adults. The amounts of remedy and prescription rates were generally dependent on the degree and duration of the ailment. Treatment durations varied between 1 and 7 days.
This result is in line with the result of [ 29 ] in which treatment durations varied between 1 and 7 days. Recovery from the disease, disappearance of the symptoms of the diseases, fading out of the disease sign, and judgment of the healer to stop the treatment were some of the criteria used in determining duration in the administration of the dosage. Spread of artemisin in resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
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New Delhi: Daya Publishing House; Google Scholar Sofowora A. Some of these plants include ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric etc.
Some plants and their derivatives are considered as important source for active ingredients which are used in aspirin and toothpaste etc.
Apart from the medicinal uses, herbs are also used in natural dye, pest control, food, perfume, tea and so on. Now a days medicinal herbs are important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Recipes for the treatment of common ailments such as diarrhoea, constipation, hypertension, low sperm count, dysentery and weak penile erection, piles, coated tongue, menstrual disorders, bronchial asthma, leucorrhoea and fevers are given by the traditional medicine practitioners very effectively.
Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field. Importance of some herbs with their medicinal values Herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, myrrh, aloe, sandalwood, ginseng, red clover, burdock, bayberry, and safflower are used to heal wounds, sores and boils. These herbs are easy to grow, look good, taste and smell amazing and many of them are magnets for bees and butterflies.
Many herbs are used as blood purifiers to alter or change a long-standing condition by eliminating the metabolic toxins. These are also known as 'blood cleansers'. Certain herbs improve the immunity of the person, thereby reducing conditions such as fever. Some herbs are also having antibiotic properties.
Turmeric is useful in inhibiting the growth of germs, harmful microbes and bacteria. Turmeric is widely used as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds. To reduce fever and the production of heat caused by the condition, certain antipyretic herbs such as Chirayta, black pepper, sandal wood and safflower are recommended by traditional Indian medicine practitioners.
Sandalwood and Cinnamon are great astringents apart from being aromatic. Sandalwood is especially used in arresting the discharge of blood, mucus etc.
Some herbs are used to neutralize the acid produced by the stomach. Herbs such as marshmallow root and leaf. They serve as antacids. The healthy gastric acid needed for proper digestion is retained by such herbs. Indian sages were known to have remedies from plants which act against poisons from animals and snake bites.
Herbs like Cardamom and Coriander are renowned for their appetizing qualities. Other aromatic herbs such as peppermint, cloves and turmeric add a pleasant aroma to the food, thereby increasing the taste of the meal. Some herbs like aloe, sandalwood, turmeric, sheetraj hindi and khare khasak are commonly used as antiseptic and are very high in their medicinal values. Ginger and cloves are used in certain cough syrups.
They are known for their expectorant property, which promotes the thinning and ejection of mucus from the lungs, trachea and bronchi.Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
Knowledge on Medicinal Plants Ethnomedicinal knowledge is concentrated in the elderly and relative members of the community and difficult in its transfer from the elders to the young generation. Abstract Background Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. The Bacteriology of Acne asoca bark. Decoction of Tabernaem Tabernaemonta Ibogaine, leaf is applied ontana, Apocynaceae Leaf na divariacata12 voacangine in the infected milk wood area.
Arctium lappa on Allium cepa Linn root tip An short review. The total area of the interview. Wound is frequently occurring external health problem in the study area. The total area of the interview.