THE CITY ASSEMBLED SPIRO KOSTOF PDF

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The City Assembled - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. History of Architecture-Settings and Rituals - Spiro Kostof. Uploaded by. The city assembled: the elements of urban form through history / Spiro Kostof ; with the collaboration of Greg Castillo ; original drawings by Richard Tobias. Responsibility: Spiro Kostof with the collaboration of Greg Castillo ; original drawings by . The city shaped: urban patterns and meanings through history.


The City Assembled Spiro Kostof Pdf

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Review: The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings throughout History by Spiro Kostof; The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form throughout History by Spiro Kostof, Greg The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. computerescue.info THE CITY SHAPED WRITTEN BY SPIRO KOSTOF AGENDA • Spiro Kostof. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings through History. Boston: Little, Brown, Kostof, Spiro. The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form.

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The City Assembled

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They were supplemented by a ditch , which becomes a more effective defense mechanism if its filled with water and becomes a moat. Earth excavated is used in building the rampart , the proportions of the two are closely related.

Transition from circular to rectangular: early walls were massive affairs, made from compressed earth. Around the 14th century the walls were faced with brick or stone.

The use of modular units such as bricks gave rise to rectangular circuits from then onwards. Primitive walls used wooden barriers in the form of stockades : large pointed oaks with intermittent embrasures. Later additions included the towers for cannon at the corners and at the gates as artillery was invented.

The City Assembled - The Elements of Urban Form Through History

The shortest defense line is circular: hence the first circuits were designed circular morever, it was tracing the land contours, around a hill.. Which usually formed a circular path. Athens : 18th century depictions A citadel was the only fortification in the 5th century bc. The outer wall came in the 12th century, which was modified in the 17th century ad. The walls were modified to suit new tactics, weapons and siege techniques Primitive edge: closely knit fabric surrounded with fields and wilderness.

In medieval Europe, the idea of a double curtain comes around 14th century. The sheltered belt was used by the besieged to gather and stage unexpected sorties. This was a strip of clear ground immediately inside or outside the wall. Star fortifications were further developed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century in response, primarily, to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. The French army was equipped with new cannons and bombards that were able to easily destroy traditional fortifications built in the Middle Ages.

Towards the 17th century, the bastioned wall with its associated features such as pincers, ravelins etc became a must, more out of a political stunt of show of power rather than need for defense. The city was completely, cruelly cut off from the countryside. This thwarted the growth of European cities to a large extent. Walls in Avila, Spain. Then came another terrace called peribolos and then the high inner circuit of the walls.

The space outside the walls was called the extramural zone, and the space between the built form and the inner most wall was the intra mural zone. This space usually used for taking the troops to the top of the walls. In Ancient Roman cities, the ceremonial procession route cutting through the heart of the city, apart from ritual associations, primarily served the purpose of troop movement.

Change in the nature of walls : the intramural zone. As the power of cannons grew during the 16th and 17th century, medieval walls became obsolete as they were too thin to offer any realistic protection against prolonged bombardment.

Most walls were torn down, the material was used in building of towers. The intramural zone was the least desirable area to build. Walls in Avila, Spain.

Then came another terrace called peribolos and then the high inner circuit of the walls. The space outside the walls was called the extramural zone, and the space between the built form and the inner most wall was the intra mural zone.

This space usually used for taking the troops to the top of the walls. In Ancient Roman cities, the ceremonial procession route cutting through the heart of the city, apart from ritual associations, primarily served the purpose of troop movement.

Change in the nature of walls : the intramural zone. As the power of cannons grew during the 16th and 17th century, medieval walls became obsolete as they were too thin to offer any realistic protection against prolonged bombardment.

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Most walls were torn down, the material was used in building of towers. The intramural zone was the least desirable area to build. This gave opportunity for squatter settlements and makeshift shanties come against the wall. In China, the earlier walls that were built out of earth were massive affairs. The poor built shelters attached to it, as well as carved niches which were cave-like in nature.

Walls in Chang an, china. Artillery platforms built in between the towers- largely increased unbuilt space between city and the walls. The change within: Intramural Even the rich were attracted to the intramural zone: There were multiple functions that the bastioned wall served, if we take a look through the pages of history, from formation of suburban districts to the building of pleasure gardens and palaces on top of them.

The Zwinger palace in the city of Dresden in Germany is one such example. In Paris, the development of boulevards was a consequence of the walls being brought down, and availability of a large unbuilt space at the citys edge.

Berlin, THE CITY EDGE The change without: Extramural zone the fringe belt The unbuilt zone in between the curtain walls and outside it, was occupied by lesser important urban functions and sects of society such as the artisans, the tannery, the horse and cattle markets and so on.

Also contained in it were religious buildings which came up too late for the extremely dense core. Geographers call this zone as the urban fringe belt. It stands for a collection of mixed land uses, with large scale and low density built pattern which is drastically different from the tightly knit urban fabric of the core.

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As the city grows, new fringe belts are developed further out, in patterns which are not necessarily concentric manner or sequential growth. The development and growth pattern of fringe belts are irregular in most European city plans. The urban fringe outside the original city core is obviously seen. There are central streets connecting to the suburban development. Left: plan of Athens, before AD.

Showing how the densely urbanized section of the city reached to the north the area of the current City Hall; to the northeast, Stadiou ave. Markets occurred near them.The sheltered belt was used by the besieged to gather and stage unexpected sorties. Showing how the densely urbanized section of the city reached to the north the area of the current City Hall; to the northeast, Stadiou ave. Find out how CAP engages with our community Career connections As the only college of architecture and planning in Colorado, we are committed to providing our students and alumni with opportunities to build their careers through meaningful interactions with the local and regional professional community.

The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History

Ward, unconditional urge that poufs detribalizes aflutter. He puts in a lot of confused ideological-aesthetic verbiage about how skyscrapers are symbols of the excesses of capitalism and how they destroy the character of cities. Athens : 18th century depictions A citadel was the only fortification in the 5th century bc.

The walls were dispensed with when the political power was strong and wanted to show off its glory by their The Catal huyuk, Turkey. Strasbourg, Germany: the core is rectangular, wherein the cathedral is built.

The city is our laboratory, classroom and playground.

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