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Where instructions are required for an adult victim, dispatchers should provide chest-compression-only CPR instructions.


If the victim is a child, dispatchers should instruct callers to provide both ventilations and chest compressions. Dispatchers should therefore be trained to provide instructions for both techniques.

Adult BLS sequence The sequence of steps for the initial assessment and treatment of the unresponsive victim are summarised in Fig.

The number of steps has been reduced to focus on the key actions. The intent of the revised algorithm is to present the steps in a logical and concise manner that is easy for all types of rescuers to learn, remember and perform.

It continues to highlight the importance of ensuring rescuer, victim and bystander safety. Calling for additional help if required is incorporated in the alerting emergency services step below. For clarity the algorithm is presented as a linear sequence of steps. It is recognised that the early steps of checking response, opening the airway, checking for breathing and calling the emergency medical dispatcher may be accomplished simultaneously or in rapid succession.

Those who are not trained to recognise cardiac arrest and start CPR would not be aware of these guidelines and therefore require dispatcher assistance whenever they make the decision to call These guidelines do not therefore include specific recommendations for those who are not trained to recognise cardiac arrest and start CPR.

The remainder of this section provides supplemental information on some of the key steps within the overall sequence. Opening the airway and checking for breathing The trained provider should assess the collapsed victim rapidly to determine if they are responsive and breathing normally. Open the airway using the head tilt and chin lift technique whilst assessing whether the person is breathing normally. Do not delay assessment by checking for obstructions in the airway.

The jaw thrust and finger sweep are no longer recommended for the lay provider. Check for breathing using the techniques described in Fig. Alerting emergency services is the European emergency phone number, available everywhere in the EU, free of charge.

See a Problem?

It is possible to call from fixed and mobile phones to contact any emergency service: an ambulance, the fire brigade or the police. Some European countries provide an alternative direct access number to emergency medical services, which may save time. Bystanders should therefore follow national guidelines on the optimal phone number to use.

If the phone has a speaker facility switch it to speaker as this will facilitate continuous dialogue with the dispatcher including if required CPR instructions. Starting chest compressions In adults needing CPR, there is a high probability of a primary cardiac cause.

When blood flow stops after cardiac arrest, the blood in the lungs and arterial system remains oxygenated for some minutes. To emphasise the priority of chest compressions, it is recommended that CPR should start with chest compressions rather than initial ventilations.

Manikin studies indicate that this is associated with a shorter time to commencement of CPR. Compress to a depth of at least 5 cm but not more than 6 cm. Allow the chest to recoil completely after each compression; do not lean on the chest. Hand position Experimental studies show better haemodynamic responses when chest compressions are performed on the lower half of the sternum. This instruction should be accompanied by a demonstration of placing the hands on the lower half of the sternum.

Four observational studies, published after the Guidelines, suggest that a compression depth range of 4. In making this recommendation the ERC recognises that it can be difficult to estimate chest compression depth and that compressions that are too shallow are more harmful than compressions that are too deep.

The ERC therefore decided to retain the guidance that chest compressions should be at least 5 cm but not more than 6 cm. Training should continue to prioritise achieving adequate compression depth. Compression rate Chest compression rate is defined as the actual rate of compressions being given at any one time.

Dog training

It differs from the number of chest compressions in a specific time period, which takes into account any interruptions in chest compressions. Very high chest compression rates were associated with declining chest compression depths. Minimising pauses in chest compressions Delivery of rescue breaths, shocks, ventilations and rhythm analysis lead to pauses in chest compressions.

Firm surface CPR should be performed on a firm surface whenever possible. Air-filled mattresses should be routinely deflated during CPR. Chest wall recoil Leaning on the chest preventing full chest wall recoil is common during CPR. Duty cycle Optimal duty cycle ratio of the time the chest is compressed to the total time from one compression to the next has been studied in animal models and simulation studies with inconsistent results.

The effect of CPR feedback or prompt devices has been studied in two randomised trials 92 and and 11 observational studies. However, in this study feedback was activated at the discretion of the physician and no details of the decision-making process to activate or not activate feedback were provided. Rescue breaths In non-paralysed, gasping pigs with unprotected, unobstructed airways, continuous-chest-compression CPR without artificial ventilation resulted in improved outcome.

While this increased intrathoracic pressure and peak airway pressure, a carefully controlled animal experiment revealed no adverse effects. Practically, this is the volume required to cause the chest to rise visibly. The maximum interruption in chest compression to give two breaths should not exceed 10 s. Mouth-to-nose ventilation Mouth-to-nose ventilation is an acceptable alternative to mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

Mouth-to-tracheostomy ventilation Mouth-to-tracheostomy ventilation may be used for a victim with a tracheostomy tube or tracheal stoma who requires rescue breathing. This decreased the number of interruptions in compression and the no-flow fraction, and and reduced the likelihood of hyperventilation.

Compression-only CPR Animal studies have shown that chest-compression-only CPR may be as effective as combined ventilation and compression in the first few minutes after non-asphyxial arrest. Our confidence in the equivalence between chest-compression-only and standard CPR is not sufficient to change current practice. CPR providers trained and able to perform rescue breaths should perform chest compressions and rescue breaths as this may provide additional benefit for children and those who sustain an asphyxial cardiac arrest , , and or where the EMS response interval is prolonged.

CPR providers should concentrate on following the voice prompts immediately when they are spoken, in particular resuming CPR as soon as instructed, and minimizing interruptions in chest compression. Indeed, pre-shock and post-shock pauses in chest compressions should be as short as possible. There are a few case reports of successful use of AEDS in children ages less than 1 year.

CPR before defibrillation The importance of immediate defibrillation has always been emphasised in guidelines and during teaching, and is considered to have a major impact on survival from ventricular fibrillation. This concept was challenged in because evidence suggested that a period of up to s of chest compression before defibrillation might improve survival when the EMS response time exceeded 4—5 min. Interval between rhythm checks The ILCOR Consensus on Science reported that there are currently no studies that directly address the question of optimal intervals between rhythm checks, and their effect on survival: ROSC; favourable neurological or functional outcome; survival to discharge; coronary perfusion pressure or cardiac output.

In accordance with the ILCOR recommendation, and for consistency with previous guidelines, the ERC recommends that chest compressions should be paused every two minutes to assess the cardiac rhythm. Voice prompts are usually programmable, and it is recommended that they be set in accordance with the sequence of shocks and timings for CPR given above.

These should include at least: 1. The duration of CPR between shocks, as well as the shock sequence and energy levels are discussed further in the Advanced Life Support Chapter. If in an exception AEDs are placed in a setting where such trained rescuers are unlikely to be available or present, the owner or distributor may choose to change the settings to compression only.

Copyright , by Howell Book House Inc.

One manikin study showed that untrained nursing students committed fewer safety errors using a fully automatic AED compared with a semi-automatic AED. Public access defibrillation PAD programmes The conditions for successful resuscitation in residential areas are less favourable than in public areas: fewer witnessed arrests, lower bystander CPR rates and, as a consequence, fewer shockable rhythms than in public places.

This limits the effectiveness of AED use for victims at home. There was a clear inverse relationship in the Japanese study between the number of AEDs available per square km and the interval between collapse and the first shock, leading to a positive relationship with survival.

Public access AED programmes should, therefore, be actively implemented in public places with a high density and movement of citizens such as airports, railway stations, bus terminals, sport facilities, shopping malls, offices and casinos where cardiac arrests are usually witnessed and trained CPR providers can quickly be on scene. The density and location of AEDs required for a sufficiently rapid response is not well established, especially when cost-effectiveness is a consideration.

Factors such as expected incidence of cardiac arrest, expected number of life-years gained, and reduction in response time of AED-equipped CPR providers compared to that of traditional EMS should inform this decision.

Placement of AEDs in areas where one cardiac arrest per 5 years can be expected is considered cost-effective and comparable to other medical interventions. The proportion of patients found in VF is lower at home than in public places, however the absolute number of potentially treatable patients is higher at home. Dispatched first responders, such as police and fire fighters will, in general, have longer response times, but they have the potential to reach the whole population.

Programmes that make AEDs available in residential areas have only been evaluated for response time, not for survival benefit. Two older, observational studies of adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest from shockable rhythms showed higher survival-to-hospital discharge rates when defibrillation was provided through an AED programme than with manual defibrillation alone.

Another large observational study of 11, patients from hospitals also showed that in-hospital AED use was associated with a lower survival-to-discharge rate compared with no AED use This suggests that AEDs may cause harmful delays in starting CPR, or interruptions in chest compressions in patients with non-shockable rhythms.

The goal is to attempt defibrillation within 3 min of collapse. In hospital areas where there is rapid access to manual defibrillation, either from trained staff or a resuscitation team, manual defibrillation should be used in preference to an AED. Whichever defibrillation technique is chosen and some hospitals may choose to have defibrillators that offer both an AED and manual mode an effective system for training and retraining should be in place.

Hospitals should monitor collapse-to-first shock intervals and audit resuscitation outcomes. Three studies have investigated the risk of CPR in persons not in cardiac arrest. Bystander CPR extremely rarely leads to serious harm in victims who are eventually found not to be in cardiac arrest. Rather, the two-fold objective of these truths is to impress upon you the great difference in potential between one dog and another, even when they are of the same breed, and to help you realize that you must find a "right one" even though he is the result of chance and not the predictable product of a dedicated breeder.

This necessity applies to each of the three categories of personal protection dogs. Whatever kind of dog you need, your evaluations must be made among dogs that are at least one year old. He is useful in situations where an alarm is needed but where biting, or even the threat of biting, could not be permitted. Examples are places where the proprietor needs to know of each arrival but, because the callers are few, does not spend time watching the entrance.

Qualifications Because such a dog need not offer the threat of physical protection, there are no minimum requirements for size and strength. One of the small breeds can be as good an alarm dog as the largest dog.

There are obvious advantages to a smaller dog in some situations. The smaller dogs are usually longer lived than the larger ones and often have more robust constitutions, as a veterinarian will tell you. Even the Toy breeds come in such a variety of coats that they can take all extremes of temperature and weather, from the coldest and wettest to the hottest and driest.

In Chapters you will find information common to many breeds of protection dogs. Checking Prospects When you have learned of a good prospect, try to make your first visit to his home a surprise so that you can see the dog as he usually acts and discover things which you may not see if special arrangements were made for your visit.

Note carefully where he is kept, how he alerts, whether he barks too much or not enough, and other factors that might be important to you.

Don't overlook a bad fault and then complain about it later. For example, determine if he is such a constant barker that he would have to be confined where he would do you little good. Observe whether his alertness is solely the result of a panicky shyness. Undeniably, a shy dog motivated by uncertainty will sometimes make a useful alarm dog, but a dog that is sound in temperament can do the job better and is more pleasant to be near.

As you talk, watch for any peculiarities the owner may have which would make you question his opinions. Emphasize that you will provide full measure of care and kindness for any dog you select but it will be kept only if it fills your need for an alarm. Such a condition will tend to keep accurate the claims made for a dog. Testing There is a simple test you can use to check an alarm dog that seems worth further consideration.

Arrange to call again at the dog's home accompanied by two other persons, who will wait a short distance from the house until after you have been admitted. Not only will you get a second chance to study how the dog reacts to your approach, but it will give you the opportunity to see whether the dog is so distracted by your presence that the individual approach of the other two strangers" will go unnoticed.

If the dog shows enough responsibility to concern himself with each separate arrival, he is worth a trial if you've found that he qualifies in other respects. Before you bring a dog home for a trial, prepare for the right start by studying Chapter The dog who barks and runs away from the advance of a stranger may make a good alarm dog, but he could hardly be suitable candidate for the second classification of a personal protection dog, the dog who provides a threat as well as an alarm.

Qualifications Although the threat dog should not be overly aggressive, he must have the courage to stand his ground staunchly against anyone who tries to bluff his way past him. This need for courage and alertness means that much care must be used in selecting the dog.

In considering first the general type of dog for the job, remember that, in posing a threat, a dog's attitude is more important than his size. True, there is something impressive about a large dog standing firmly in the path of an intruder.

But there is something equally impressive about the right kind of a small terrier who appears ready for violent action. You would kick a small terrier out of the way?

You would walk right over him? I know of bears that have been detained when they tried just that. However, size itself can be quite a deterrent and, if a smaller dog is your choice, it is doubly important that he be right physically and temperamentally.

For an example of how structure can make a great difference between two breeds of dogs of similar size, compare the Pug with one of the smaller terriers. The Pug's head, while large for his size, has such a flat face and small teeth that it would not scare a determined intruder. When the terrier snarls he reveals a well-equipped mouth that is big enough to grab a lot of leg, pants and all.

You will find further information common to all types of protection dogs, and methods of finding them, in Chapters 7 through Testing a Threat Dog You have at least tentatively made the preliminary decisions on the breeds which seem suitable to your purpose and the age of the prospects you will seek.

Those sources of information mentioned in Chapter 10 will soon supply you with enough leads to make a start. The following step will save you much time.


If possible, before you go to look at a prospect, phone its owner and explain that you need a dog with enough courage to stand up to a person who will try to bluff him down. Make it clear that you will want to watch while a stranger does the testing. If an owner objects to such a proposal, eliminate his dog. Without a test for this essential quality, there is no reason to consider any other virtues the dog might have.

When you have obtained an owner's consent to test his dog, arrange to have someone who can follow directions capably to do the testing while you watch from a concealed place. The dog should be tested in as close to the normal home situation as possible, but he must be within a fence, or tied, while the test takes place so that there is no danger of a bite. The owner should not be within sight when the testing is done, as his presence may encourage the dog to react differently.

Your tester should have a burlap sack and a cap gun to snap, with or without caps. If the dog is shy, he'll back up from the clicking. Ask the tester to walk in a normal manner to a point where the dog will alert, and then to proceed to within a few feet of the dog where he should make a threatening swing with the sack and snap the gun two or three times.

If the dog continues to oppose your helper's entry after the sack is swung toward him and the gun is snapped, the tester should turn and leave the area. The dog should indicate by his actions that he has sufficient staunchness to discourage most intruders, which will serve your purpose. If your situation is one in which a dog would have to exercise discretion and be easily controlled, another simple test, which you can give personally, will be required.

By arrangement with the owner, visit the dog's yard or household when the dog is at liberty to stop you, and see how much difficulty the owner has in bringing him under control so that you can be admitted.

In short, is the dog staunch enough for your purpose, and yet controllable enough so that you wouldn't have to confine him in such a way that he would be useless? Before you bring a dog home for trial, carefully read Chapter 11 on "Starting Right.

His job is to stop a man, if necessary, by winning a fight. Qualifications A strong sense of responsibility.

Unless he feels responsible, a dog may be easily distracted from his purpose of physical defense. He must be keenly alert and aware of situations that develop. It is not enough for him to be aware and concerned. He must act with sufficient force. He must be able to stand up to threat and pain. He must have the mental and physical abilities to be a formidable opponent. When you admit someone to your premises, your dog should respect your judgment but remain alert.

The maniacal, uncontrollable dog is not only dangerous-he's useless, being shut away much of the time when his presence would be a comfort.

To find a dog who meets the above requirements and can then reorient these qualities to another master can be very difficult. Generally, a pup with such potential is more adaptable to a household than an adult would be. However, you will probably find that, since the methods for seeking and choosing an adult are the same as for finding and accrediting a pup, through the performance of his relatives, you can start looking and let your decisions be influenced by the best that is available.

Checking Prospects Use all available information so that you will have a full perspective on what is obtainable. Keep in mind all the breeds mentioned as suitable, instead of one or two. Truly, handsome is as handsome does in the case of a man-stopper. Regardless of what he looks like, the most beautiful dog you will find is the one who would give his life to save yours.

The following suggestion may help you acquire additional facts about the dogs to which your leads may take you. From some of the breeders you will meet, or from the pages of dog magazines, you can obtain the names of the secretaries and other officers of regional and national breed clubs.

These officers, along with the writers of the breed columns, often possess quite a knowledge of the accomplishments of various breeding programs. Although it's true that there is a degree of "kennel blindness" in the dog fancy, it is just as true that a person who would fault a rival's dog as not being of the "right type" will concede the same dog's superiority in demonstrated characteristics such as protectiveness and trainability.

When they learn that you need a dog for such an exacting task as maximum protection, they will try to tell you of a person who, either by intent or by chance, produces dogs that are conceded to be the best for your needs. They realize that in questions of performance, unlike those of eye-appeal, comparison is generally conclusive. If your discussions turn up any information on people who have been active in obedience work, talk with them. They are interested in temperament and may be able to tell you about common faults and virtues that they have observed in certain lines of dogs.

Both professionals and amateurs may be of help in this respect. You will find that your leads to dogs and information will generate more leads, and you will eventually have some prospects worth testing. The tests are surprisingly simple.

The Responsibility Test The first is a test to see whether a dog will stay with a person or property by his own free choice when there are obvious and inviting opportunities to leave. Remember that no guard dog is any good when he's gone. Even more important is the truth that a dog who lacks the responsibility to stay with his charges rarely makes a good protector when he is with them. Conversely, a dog who concerns himself with staying where he belongs is one who will act effectively when his charges are threatened.

These facts emphasize the foolishness of skipping this test merely because there seems to be no possibility of your dog escaping from confinement. Apply the test in the same manner to adult prospects and to the parents or close relatives of any puppy prospect you might consider. The best possible way of determining the traits a family of dogs possesses is by observing those traits in dogs of that family.

You will soon see that an explanation of how you intend to test prospects will cause many owners to retract their statements on their "great" dogs, thus saving you much time.

Have the owner of each dog you test take him by car away from his premises, and, in a strange area, free him from any restraint. Without commanding the dog in any way, the man should walk slowly along. From a distance, watch to see whether the dog is so distracted or tempted by his new surroundings that he forgets all about his master. A dog with the qualities of a good guard dog might drift around a bit, noticing all things in his environment, but he would show concern with his master's whereabouts, and at definite intervals would swing back close to him to demonstrate his responsibility.

Such a dog would be worthy of further consideration.

If, when he is not restrained, a dog finds his new surroundings so interesting that he forgets to keep track of his master, you had better look elsewhere for a natural protector.

As previously stated, merely considering such a test will cause many owners to withdraw their dogs with such excuses as, "He's had no training," or "He's never been out of the yard. The second step in testing is to arrange with the dog's owner for a demonstration of what happens when a gate or door is accidentally left open. Watch the proceedings from a distance so that you will be of no interest to the dog.

A dog who is accustomed to confinement is sometimes slow to notice an opportunity to leave an area, so be sure that your prospect makes a choice between staying and leaving. The owner should remain concealed and quiet so that he does not influence the situation. Ideally, a responsible dog should be concerned with staying on "his" property. Don't write him off completely if he saunters outside his area and putters around in a way that demonstrates he is still more concerned with home and fireside than with the call of the open road.

However, if he shows that his heartstrings are but frail threads against the pull of adventure, and with his unconcern indicates that you could steal the house from behind him, you'd better say "Thanks, but no thanks. The Capability Test The nature of this test may frighten off another block of owners. Again, good riddance-you claim you want a real "stopper. Your helper should be equipped with a burlap sack and a gun for blank-firing. Even if you were willing that your helper be bitten, you would find no volunteers, so in order to protect the man, you will have to choose between having the dog securely chained or confined and having him wear a safe muzzle.

Though it will confuse some dogs, the muzzle is by far the better choice. See that the owner of the dog you are considering has an opportunity to familiarize his dog with the muzzle by having him wear it during short periods for two days before the test. Meet with the owner and your helper in a place where the dog cannot see or hear any of you talking together, and arrange to have the dog muzzled and in a definite place so that your "heavy" can force an entrance and make the test.

Explain to the owner that the place of the test must provide a means of your watching the action without attracting the dog's attention, and permit him to be close at hand for any emergency, yet out of the dog's sight. All concerned should realize that there should be no oral communication between any of you, because at best it's difficult to create a test situation that will ring true to a good dog.

Be definite about the time of entry and the signal that will tell the man that the muzzle is in- place and all is ready. The lighting of a light or the closing of a drape are easy ways of signaling.

When he gets the signal, the "heavy," gun in one hand and the sack in the other, should approach the point of challenge, which will probably be the door or gate. Regardless of whether the dog meets him head on or hangs back a bit, the heavy should move steadily toward him. The man should snap the cap gun a couple of times, hit the dog with a hard swipe of the sack, and retreat from the area, shoving the dog back away from him if necessary so that the gate or door can be closed.

If the muzzled dog tries to fight the man in the face of the gun and club-like sack, there should be little doubt that he would make things rough for an intruder.

If he stands his ground while trying to free himself of the muzzle, you can logically conclude that he would fight effectively without that handicap. Muzzled or not, if he shows he would sooner retreat than fight, he's not the kind of dog you need. The foregoing tests will reveal whether or not a dog has the qualities that will make him a good personal protector. However, there are other factors that can determine how acceptable he may be in your situation.

Your own observation of the physical situation in which he lives can tell you much about a dog's living habits. A thorough questioning of the owner will give you more information. Remember, many undesirable traits are definitely inherited and you should check for their existence in the relatives of a puppy prospect as well as in an adult.

Before you bring any dog home, carefully read Chapter 1 1. As any professional trainer will tell you, there are many factors that favor a purebred, the most important of which is that it is possible to predict his development with considerable accuracy because you can get information about his family characteristics.

As examples of this variation, the little Miniature Schnauzer and the impressive Doberman Pinscher, two breeds that are considered quite suspicious, will produce occasional individuals who would not react to the approach of a Frankenstein. So, after you have decided on the size and general physical type to suit your home area, you will have to start the interesting but exacting task of finding prospects in that general category.

To prevent the selection of your dog from being influenced by sentiment and eye appeal, continue to regard each prospect primarily as a potential implement until you have located a usable dog. BREEDS The logical way for you to begin a search for any of the three types of protection dog is by giving thought to those breeds with the greatest number of dogs most apt to qualify physically and mentally for your purpose.

For your convenience in seeking such information, it is advisable to consider dogs according to the groups to which they belong. Those of us who worked with some of them in the World War II Dog Program are still wondering who it was that had the sporting dogs surplussed en masse because they were "too birdy" to make war dogs. Some of them showed exceptional ability. Supposedly, it was thought that some of the foreign game birds they might encounter would divert them from their purpose, so they were returned to their homes, including some who had demonstrated exceptional ability prior to the issuance of the surplus directive.

One of that group was "Shorty," a purebred English Setter who hunted men with an intensity and finesse such as his ancestors had visited on quail. Since the time of that conclusion, two of the retriever breeds, Labrador and Golden, have distinguished themselves by guiding the blind on city streets where pigeons putter enticingly a few feet away and through parks where game birds are common. Some of the other sporting breeds show outstanding qualities of concentration and responsibility in the way they work on a specific quarry, ignoring cats, rabbits, and other distractions, and in handling birds in a way that requires the utmost in control..

These facts do not contradict the advocacy of breeding for a purpose-they support it. The sense of responsibility instilled by breeding for one purpose occasionally finds expression in another field. While generally easygoing, some of the sporting dogs have a raw, primitive courage that comes as quite a shock to those who have had no experience with them. True, there is no obligation on the part of the breeders of these dogs to produce guards, but don't write off a prospect without a test merely because he's a sporting dog.

There are four sporting breeds that show more than the average responsibility for guarding a variety of things, from automobiles to families. Physically, they combine size and soundness in a way that qualifies them to be threat dogs and man-stoppers, but makes them unsuited for alarm dogs, where a big dog, even if friendly, might be offensive to some timid souls who would be kept away by anything larger than a Toy breed. Chesapeake Bay Retriever A large percentage of Chesapeake Bay Retrievers have the protectiveness and determination to be man-stoppers as well as the physical ability to do a good job.

An outstanding constitution and a harsh, weather-resistant coat enables the Chesapeake to live and work under climatic conditions that would be a hardship to most other breeds. He needs a lot more obedience training than the average sporting dog, and for best results it should begin as soon as he is six months old. Such training will develop qualities that come as a surprise to those who have assumed that he was only an exceptionally rugged retriever.

Height: Many big males will stand 25 to 27 inches at the shoulder, and females a few inches less. Weight: Males can carry 80 pounds or more in hard condition, and females about 65 pounds. German Short-haired Pointer This breed can be a fine all-purpose gun dog as well as a home and car protector. However, while there are many with alertness and suspicion, there are fewer who have the courage to be a man-stoppers.

In fact, some of the families of the breed have been plagued with a form of timidity that has been well-described as "situation shyness. But when he is of good breeding and has been properly exposed to lots of strange sights and-sounds, the German Short-haired Pointer can serve you well.

Height: The Standard gives the shoulder height as 23 to 25 inches for males and 21 to 23 inches for females. Weight: Males, 55 to 70 pounds; females, 45 to 60 pounds. There is a current tendency to breed dogs heavier than these weights. German Wire-haired Pointer This breed is not sufficient in numbers to permit wide observation, but a high percentage of those observed seem to be protective and courageous.

These dogs have exceptional strength and agility and it's wrapped up in a coat that gives them lots of protection.

Height: Males, from 24 to 26 inches at the shoulder; females, a bit less. Weight: No weight is specified by the Standard, but many males exceed 80 pounds, and almost never does such size bring unsoundness, as is the case with some breeds.

Weimaraner This dog was introduced to this country in accordance with plans intended to protect him from casual breedings. Unfortunately, as is often the case with a new breed, novelty seekers acquired some of the stock and careless matings were made, resulting in a regrettable variation in temperament types.

Soon the Ymar, as he is called, was A good German Short-haired Pointer will protect your equipment as well as work for you in the field. A determined Boxer can stop the "foot in the door" approach. However, his loyal supporters prevailed over his detractors, and quite a few of his breed have demonstrated ability as upland hunters, retrievers, and trackers of game and men.

His record in the obedience ring is outstanding. Although he has proven his usefulness, he often shows a paradoxical quality which demands much care in his selection. Ymars are one of the better breeds for "staying home," but some individuals protest against staying alone by doing a lot of barking and destructive chewing, clinging to these bad habits with awesome obstinacy.

Nearly always, when one has the breeding and rearing to be free of this fault, he is qualified for a lot of jobs, including that of a man-stopper. Height: Males, 25 to 27 inches at the shoulder; females, slightly smaller. Weight: The Standard specifies no weight, but males commonly reach 80 pounds, females somewhat less.

GROUP 2: HOUNDS The hound group is greatly varied in appearance and size, ranging from the Dachshund to the Irish Wolfhound, tallest of dogs, but the scant sprinkling of protective individuals within this group does not make it a good hunting ground for guard dogs.

The one exception to this generality is the Dachshund. When his bark is accompanied by a wagging tail, he makes an inoffensive little alarm dog who isn't likely to frighten timid callers. But when he's really protective, he can back up a threat with a lot of mouth and a hard bite, as some intruders have learned quite suddenly.

Short of leg though he is, he can move a few feet in a hurry. More dogs suitable for police work, guard duty, and personal protection are found in this group than in any other. Don't assume that you will not find the less common breeds near you just because you have not heard of them.

The following working breeds are well worth considering for threat dogs and man-stoppers. Belgian Sheepdog He is a dog of very convenient size for home and car and is intelligent and very discriminating.

Height: Males should be about 24 to 26 inches at the shoulder, females generally under 24 inches.

Weight: pounds. In character, structure and size he is almost identical to the Belgian Sheep dog. Bouvier des Flandres He has quite a background in many different jobs. At present, some are doing a fine job in police work in Canada. Males average about 27 inches at the shoulder and will weigh over 90 pounds in good condition. Females are only slightly smaller. Boxer A good Boxer who has had the amount of obedience training necessary to bring about his full development can be a companionable dog with the courage and substance to be a man-stopper.

Certainly he is one of the most reliable with children. He must be chosen carefully, as many of his breed are too naive and good-natured to be guard dogs. Height: Males will average 24 inches at the shoulder; females are slightly smaller than males.

Weight: Males will average close to pounds, females about pounds. Briard In his native country, Belgium, the Bouvier canno in his championship unless A good Briard has a strong sense of property boundaries and can do he has also won a prize in working competition as an army, police, or defense an authoritative job of protecting them.

However, to acquire a dog of dog. The Briard has an interesting history of use but, unfortunately, his breeders too often offer glowing tales of his past instead of demonstrations of what he can do now.

When considering a Briard for a demanding job such as man-stopping, believe what you see and not what you are told. Height: Males, 23 to 27 inches at the shoulder; females, about an inch less than males. Weight: There seems to be more variance in the weight of Briards than in other breeds. One dog that stands 27 inches at the shoulder may weigh 90 pounds, while another of equal height and in the same condition may be no more than 75 pounds.

Bullmastiff He can be as determined as he looks, and when he's in hard condition can back up his opinions with enough physical force to stop a man cold. The fact that he is almost never noisy makes him a good choice for a city home. Height: Males often stand as high as 27 inches at the shoulder, which is about an inch higher than the females' height.

Weight: A good average is pounds for males and pounds for females. A good one can be very sagacious, a poor one very giddy and noisy. On the physical side, the percentage of present-day collies with defeetive vision is shocking. Height: Males will average about 26 inches at the shoulder; females run approximately two inches less than males. Weight: Males, about 65 pounds, females between 50 and 60 The Great Dane's size alone should discourage any intruder.


Doberman Pinscher One of the best choices. Breeders have done an excellent job of stabilizing temperament in the Dobe. At the present time there are many families of the breed that are trustworthy and discriminating, as well as being among the most fearless and capable of man-stoppers.

Height: inches. German Shepherd There is not a finer working dog than a good German Shepherd. His temperament, physical ability, and wonderful coat equip him for all kinds of jobs in as many places. But when stricken with shyness, as many of his breed are, the German Shepherd can be the most useless of dogs. Choose carefully, lest you come up with a "protection dog" who would run from a cap pistol.But you can find used copies very inexpensively on site and site.

There is a high degree of concern regarding the risk of SCD in children and teenagers amongst the lay public, in comparison to other much more prevalent deadly risks of childhood, such as accident, injury, suicide, and violence Figure 1. He can be stimulated to attack under the most regrettable circumstances by a person who may innocently act like an agitator.

The fact that the dog might have been a top hound with a record of winning tree-hound purses would not alter the case. The demonstration of the detour by humans significantly improved the dogs' performance in the trials.

FREDIA from Hampton
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