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Even though around a group Ecological Morphology was established in Leiden, the ecology papers by van der Klaauw are not mentioned in their publications e.

However, in a comparison of the methodologies of ecology and morphology Dullemeijer used the ecology studies of van der Klaauw. After Bock, to my knowledge Liem was initially the only one to refer to this paper in a review of the ecomorphology of the teleost skull. During the war — van der Klaauw was taken hostage by the occupying German authorities and spent some time in the German civil concentration camp St Michielsgestel The Netherlands.


He used this time to write a survey of the data on the Vertebrate skull from the literature. In these papers van der Klaauw introduced two new cohering concepts. The first one is that of the functional component. Skeletal elements together performing a specific function should be considered as a unit with a certain degree of independence. The second concept is that of holism: the various functional components should fit together within the whole of the skull.

For the latter aspect van der Klaauw may be inspired by the book Holism and Evolution Smuts Van der Klaauw was able to make the concept of holism operational by introducing the functional component in functional morphology.

In his paper on the distinction of the facial skull and the cerebral skull he considered these as relatively independently varying units. Initially, he used the term functional component for cranial elements, later on the weak parts were included. From on he started with his students a series of studies about the head anatomy of fishes, birds and mammals including the weak parts.

Many of these studies resulted in publications see: list of publications by students communicated by Van der Klaauw. However, even though the approach was a functional morphological one, the functional interpretations were mainly based on observations in dead animals.

However, he laid the foundation, on which his student and successor Dullemeijer could build the theoretical framework of the functional morphology in a holistic context. Moreover, Dullemeijer introduced the functional analysis in life animals as part of functional morphological studies.

For details of his contributions, see Dullemeijer , Dullemeijer and Zweers , and Dubbeldam et al. From the Leiden functional morphology was a thriving research area, internationally known as the Leiden school of functional morphology. The importance of the approach of van der Klaauw has been recognized by many researchers in various fields of morphology e.

Thus Gans preferred the term mechanical unit over functional component. Liem used the term functional unit in a comparable way. The main difference is that the term unit implies a sharply bordered element, whereas functional components more or less fade into each other depending upon the influence of the function.

Most influential in favor of the ideas of the ideas of van der Klaauw was the American orthodontist Moss who introduced the concept of the functional matrix in orthodontics Moss and Young This concept rests upon the same assumptions as that of the functional component.

Through the papers of Moss and his coworkers other researchers discovered the work of van der Klaauw, and recognized its significance for their own research, e. The papers were mentioned in several chapters in Hanken and Hall and were also the subject of a recent theoretical analysis Dressino and Lamas Even though the term functional component is hardly used anymore, the holistic approach of van der Klaauw still has a place in functional morphology of the head, as well of other systems e.

Even so, the paper proved to be useful to several authors, e. These notes have a strong theoretical character and are interlarded with numerous examples offering references to anatomical data. This paper consists of thirty-one statements, in which van der Klaauw expressed his opinion about the importance of the philosophic backgrounds of the biological sciences.

After completing these papers van der Klaauw was unable to continue his scientific activities because of serious health problems. Therefore, it is gratifying to note that these papers also have found their way in the more theoretical literature e. However, his most important contributions were in craniology. But here too, his contributions have a different weight. Whereas the references to his publications on the auditory region have to do with observations in specific species, have those on functional morphology a more fundamental and lasting impact on the methodology in functional and evolutionary morphology.

As for ecological morphology, the connection between morphological features of the organism and the environment is often implicit in functional morphological studies. In his capacity of director of the Zoological Laboratory of Leiden University, van der Klaauw had a long lasting impact on the development of this institute. He initiated several new lines of research e. During his directory Tinbergen began his studies in Ethology, Kuenen in Ecology.

The short overview of the present paper shows that he was not only an inspiring teacher and an able administrator, but also a gifted scientist, who opened new vistas, in particular for functional morphology. The laboratory bearing his name may disappear, his merits will still be recognized for some time. Much of the work of van der Klaauw is characterized by a typological approach, even when he enters the fields of ecological and functional morphology.

In this introduction he distinguished six morphological subdisciplines: descriptive anatomy, comparative anatomy, functional anatomy, ecological morphology, ontogeny and architectonic Bauplan- or synthetic morphology. He did not mention an evolutionary morphology.

This does not imply that Van der Klaauw denied the importance of evolutionary theory. In his opinion, however, evolutionary theory had not yet explanatory power in morphology.

His early work focused upon the tympanic region in mammals. A second subject concerned the basics of ecology and ecological morphology. In the third place he laid down the principles of functional morphology that were later elaborated by Dullemeijer and his coworkers Leiden school of morphology, see Dubbeldam et al. The three topics mentioned above will be reviewed concisely in the following sections; also the impact of his work on later and current research will be considered.

Finally, Van der Klaauw produced hand-outs about his lectures on zoomorphology. After his retirement he published part of these lecture notes.

So, finally we will have a short look at these notes as these are characteristic for the systematic approach Van der Klaauw used in his scientific work and teaching.

Van der Klaauw was not only a zoomorphologist, but also had great interest in theoretical issues in connection with the schools of morphology, in particular those of Lubosch and Meyer-Abich e. This aspect has been discussed before Trienes Trienes argued that van der Klaauw developed his concept of holistic biology influenced by, and in confrontation with the German school of idealistic morphology of Lubosch and Meijer-Abich.

The holistic approach led in the long term to the theory of functional components thus offering an alternative to the reductionist experimental approach. At that time comparative anatomy was a dominant scientific field. The main question concerned the homology of anatomical elements throughout the classes of Vertebrates. Van der Klaauw participated in the discussions e. His most important contribution, however, concerned the ventral bony wall of the cavum tympani, i.

Van Kampen compared this region in a series of adult mammals. Later on he expanded his research into the field of phylogeny studying fossil skulls. We will have a short look at both aspects. The central question concerned the homology of the bony elements of the mammalian auditory region with elements in the reptilian skull.

Several elements contribute to the formation of this bulla, such as tympanicum, petrosum, alisphenoid, basisphenoid etc. In some mammals, however, the ventral wall is formed in part by a separate element, the entotympanicum. If this ventral wall in mammals is considered a new formation, the question rises whether the entotympanicumis is also a new element and not derived from elements already present in reptilian ancestors. On basis of his comparative studies van Kampen had concluded that the entotympanicum was a new element without a homologon in the reptiles.

Some of his considerations: the entotympanicum appears late in the ontogeny, it is hardly recognizable in Monotremata and Insectivores and only modestly developed in Marsupials. The rostral part is initially part of the cartilage of the tuba auditiva. The caudal entotympanicum is assumed to form initially the ventral cover of the hind room of the cavum tympani.

Only later on it participates in covering the ventral wall of the rostral part of the tympanic cavity. The contribution of the rostral and caudal parts to the entotympanicum differs greatly among the mammalian species and can be used as a characteristic to subdivide mammalian genera and families. The latter aspect is still an important issue in palaeontological studies of mammals see below. The structure of this paper is characteristic for van der Klaauw: in about pages he described presence, shape, size and other aspects of all elements of the bulla auditiva and surrounding area.

Again and again he discusses systematically all aspects of each of the bony elements throughout the groups of recent and fossil mammals, thus surveying the data from the literature and incorporating own observations.

In doing so he typifies the auditory bulla of the respective genera and families At the end he summarizes in 34 pages his own observations on the tympanic and entotympanic in 47 specimen belonging to 20 genera of fossil mammals.

In this type of studies one relies on previous studies as long as the original observations seem correct. In this context it is interesting to note that several recent papers concerning the auditory area in fossil mammals refer to the work of van der Klaauw.

The latter paper is also mentioned in among others Wiig , Novacek , Springer , Ivanoff , Meng et al. Several papers on other skeletal elements refer to papers by van de Klaauw, e.

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An annotated bibliography of C.J. van der Klaauw with notes on the impact of his work

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