The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade Keeping the Bridge Procedures Guide up to date and relevant is a major. The ICS Bridge Procedures Guide is widely acknowledged as the principal industry guidance on safe bridge procedures, and is used by Masters, watchkeeping. GUIDE, REPLACING THE FOURTH EDITION ISSUED IN FULLY REVISED FIFTH EDITION. ICS BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE. The ICS Bridge.
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2 BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE FOREWORD Since first published in , the intention behind the ICS Bridge Procedures Guide has been to reflect current. The ICS Bridge Procedures Guide is widely acknowledged as the principal industry Documents below are in MS Word or Adobe PDF format. The first edition of the Bridge Procedures Guide was published 21 years ago, in The assistance of experts from ICS member national shipowners'.
This was due to higher etch-rates at the wafer edge in the plasma etching processes used which caused the constrictions of the bridges to be narrower and the undercuts to be deeper.
This is an indication that only small deviations in bridge geometry can be tolerated for achieving a repeatable breaking process. Among the electrically probable junctions inspected in these cells, 31 were first identified as potential tunneling junctions using SEM.
Subsequent electrical characterization revealed that 15 out of these 31 junctions exhibited measurable tunneling currents. However, since the currents only appeared at bias values exceeding 3 V in five of these junctions, we were only able to estimate gap widths in 10 of the 15 junctions using fits to the 1-D transport model.
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The other 16 of the selected junctions emerged as connected ligaments with resistances equivalent to about 30 G0. To the best of our knowledge, this strong correlation between electrical and morphological characterization is unreported in previous studies of MCBJs and EBJs. Demonstration of molecular junctions formed using CDBJ To test whether CDBJs are suitable for performing electrical transport experiments on molecules, we deposited oligo phenylene ethynylene with acetyl-protected thiol groups OPE3-SAc from solution immediately after electrical pre-characterization to identify tunneling junctions see Methods for more details on the device fabrication.
A similar increase in conductance was found in 6 out of 13 tunneling junctions investigated in this study see Supplementary Fig. The variation in conductance values can be explained by different couplings between the gold contact and the OPE3 molecule or the formation of parallel molecular junctions inside the gap.
The I—V histogram in Fig. However, in some devices telegraph noise is observed which can be attributed to molecular rearrangements and the formation of multiple junction configurations 34 see Supplementary Fig.
The schematic is an idealized depiction of a dithiol-terminated oligo phenylene ethynylene molecule OPE3 molecule deposited in a crack-defined break junction. By cooling down the junctions from K to 7 K, we found a small decrease in conductance see Fig. This high device stability could allow for future detailed inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of vibrational 34 or many-body effects 35 in single-molecule junctions.
The I—V characteristics of an OPE3 junction in vacuum reveals the suitability and stability of molecular junctions formed using CDBJ for experiments from K down to cryogenic temperatures. In terms of applicability, a CDBJ is closer to an EBJ as they both are suitable for producing molecular junctions where the gaps between the contact electrodes do not have to be reconfigured.
However, electromigration of pre-fabricated metal constrictions forms EBJs at a rate of one junction in a few minutes at best, and if not carefully controlled with active feedback, can generate undesirable debris in the vicinity of the created gap 36 , This is equivalent to producing approximately one junction every 1 ms, thereby improving fabrication throughput more than fold, while typical fabrication yields are comparable for both methodologies 5 , 16 , The dynamically controllable mechanically controllable break junction MCBJ allows for continuous monitoring of the breaking process and tuning of the resulting inter-electrode separation.
However, the need to maintain a precise substrate curvature restricts the usability to single junctions.
In contrast, a crack-defined break junction CDBJ has a fixed pulling action, but the self-breaking process triggered by crack formation and retraction of the cantilevers is highly parallelizable and can be applied to large-scale arrays of many thousands of break junctions simultaneously.
Further, unlike in a MCBJ 3-point bending stage, the attenuation factor of a CDBJ is known prior to breaking as it is equal to the elastic strain of the bridge material.
The variability in the orientation of cracks formed in TiN and the variability of cracked-edge recession in TiN, translates into variable straining of the Au film on top, whose nanocrystallinity further compounds the observed variations in the final outcome for nominally identical bridges. In its ideal manifestation, our approach would combine a single-crystalline insulating brittle cracking layer with a single-crystalline conductive ductile electrode layer on top, to eliminate material variability.
Restricting the discussion to the material system used in the present study, the most promising route to improving yield is by increasing the grain size of the evaporated Au film through various handles such as decreasing the Au deposition rate, heating the substrate during Au deposition, or by annealing the deposited films after deposition 39 , 40 , Our CDBJ methodology paves the way towards the long-term goal of molecular electronics, namely the integration of molecular functionalities into electrical circuits and systems consisting of dense arrays of interconnected molecular junctions.
In view of the sheer number of break junctions produced in a single batch, the CDBJ methodology drastically reduces processing time for the fabrication of individual break junctions and provides a platform for investigations of electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of molecules and atomic-sized contacts on a statistically significant number of junctions.
With such an approach, each junction could be individually connected to, and addressed by conventional solid-state integrated electronic circuits ICs. Finally, the significance of this work goes beyond nanogap electrodes made of gold since the CDBJ methodology can be extended to other classes of materials by substituting gold with any electrode material that exhibits interesting electrical, chemical, and plasmonic properties for applications in molecular electronics and spintronics, nanoplasmonics, and biosensing.
A nm thick silicon oxide layer SiO2 was thermally grown on the silicon wafer by wet oxidation. Next, a 3 nm thick chromium Cr adhesion layer and a 10 nm thick gold Au layer were evaporated on top of the TiN. While the stepper has a nominal resolution limit of about 0. All bridges were released in a single step by sacrificial isotropic etching of the a-Si using an inductively coupled plasma STS ICP DRIE, at a chamber pressure of 10 mTorr and an RF coil generator power of W in SF6 at sccm flow for 56 s leading to an undercut length of — nm, depending on the location on the wafer.
A sacrificial release using dry etching rather than wet etching was favored as it was observed that the gold layer quickly lost its adhesion to TiN upon contact to common wet etchants used to etch aluminum oxide, which was the sacrificial layer used in earlier versions of the crack-junction process 25 , 26 , thereby preventing the pulling action of the TiN cantilevers to be readily imparted to the gold.
Although the gold layer was thin, it was possible to obtain stable electrical contacts between the probe needles and the probing pads connected to the junctions. The 50 nm thick layer of electrically conducting TiN below the gold layer served as mechanical and electrical supporting layer.
To prevent electrical currents leaking though the TiN and the Cr layers at the cracked extremities of the cantilevers, short selective etches were applied successively to retreat the TiN layer and the Cr layer at the junctions.
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In these etch-steps, TiN and Cr were etched isotropically by 20 nm and 3 nm, respectively. Along with Cr etching, the oxygen plasma played the role of pre-cleaning the CDBJs before the electrical characterization.
Moreover, since the cantilevers with designs that are optimal for CDBJ formation are sufficiently stiff to resist stiction, no critical point drying was used in our process. Although titanium Ti is as effective an adhesion layer as Cr for CDBJ fabrication, Cr is preferred because it can be etched in an oxygen plasma to eliminate possible parasitic conduction paths through the adhesion layer after CDBJ formation.
Electrical characterization Electrical two-point measurements were favored over four-point measurements as it was found in initial characterization experiments of CDBJs that four-point probing bore an increased risk of inducing electrical damage to the junctions. Consequently routines and procedures to monitor the ship's position and to avoid the possibility of mistakes must be built into the organisation of the navigational watch.
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The risks associated with navigation demand positive reporting at all times, self verification, verification at handover and regular checks of instrumentation and bridge procedures. The course that the ship is following and compass errors must be displayed and checked, together with the traffic situation, at regular intervals and at every course change and watch handover.
Effective organisation Preparing a passage plan and carrying out the voyage necessitates that bridge resources are appropriately allocated according to the demands of the different phases of the voyage. Depending upon the level of activity likely to be experienced, equipment availability, and the time it will take should the ship deviate from her track before entering shallow water, the master may need to ensure the availability of an adequately rested officer as back-up for the navigational watch.
Where equipment is concerned, errors can occur for a variety of reasons and poor equipment calibration may be significant. In the case of integrated systems, it-is possible that the failure of one component could have unpredictable consequences for the system as a whole. It is therefore essential that navigational information is always cross checked, and where there is doubt concerning the ship's position, it is always prudent to assume a position that is closest to danger and proceed accordingly.
Motivation Motivation comes from within and cannot be imposed. It is however the responsibility of the master to create the conditions in which motivation is encouraged. A valuable asset in any organisation is teamwork and this is enhanced by recognising the strengths, limitations and competence of the people within a team, and organising the work of the bridge team to take best advantage of the attributes of each team member.
Working in isolation when carrying out critical operations carries the risk of an error going undetected. Training in bridge resource management can further support this. It is recommended that a copy is carried on board every ship. They have been developed by an expert international industry working group in response to recent incidents involving container ships.
The Guidelines recognise the safety responsibilities of ship operators, but also discuss the responsibilities of those involved with the correct packing and stuffing of the cargo into containers, the accurate labelling and declaration of the goods by cargo interests, and the weighing of loaded containers.
In addition, they address the safe handling and stowage of containers when they are received by a port facility and are loaded on board a ship, and also cover the maintenance and inspection of the containers themselves.
2OO7 EDITION FOURTH
This latest update has two main purposes: to describe the current worldwide supply and demand situation for seafarers, and to forecast trends for the decade ahead, to help the industry anticipate changes and take appropriate action. The Report builds upon updates conducted at 5 year intervals since The book will assist companies maintain documentation and data relevant to seafarers employed on their ships, including their experience, training, medical fitness and competency in assigned duties.
Seafarers can use the book to keep their own personal records of seagoing service, experience, qualifications and participation in drills and exercises on board ships. Comprehensive guidance notes on every aspect of ship security are also included within the model plan. The Checklist can also be used as a basis for developing documented methods of assessing the operation of the SMS during regular internal audits, and should provide a helpful reference tool to others involved in checking compliance with the ISM Code.Max Power: Speed made good SMG can be measured from two fixed points on a chart, and is also calculated and transmitted by electronic position fixing systems.
If a ship's officer holds a valid Pilotage Exemption Certificate PEC issued by the responsible authority, it may not be necessary to engage a pilot when the ship is in pilotage waters. However, using in this technique, should takennot to obscure care be chart features.
In addition, the OOW should know how these characteristics are affected by the current and anticipated machinery status. Digital selective calling DSC is used for calling and replying, and for transmitting, acknowledging and relaying distress alerts. The gyro will usually support a number of repeaters, including a required repeater at the emergency steering position.
Unless repeated violations occur, no action will normally be taken against the ship provided that a false alert is reported and cancelled without inappropriate delay. Effective organisation Preparing a passage plan and carrying out the voyage necessitates that bridge resources are appropriately allocated according to the demands of the different phases of the voyage.
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