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If they do so, some parts of the Site may not function properly. Other Sanskrit schools that I have visited in India have little interaction with the public, and are afforded the opportunity to enforce stricter language policies. For this reason, the students and staff often communicate in Hindi with the other residents and visitors.
If required, after any meal announcements were delivered in Hindi. If there were international guests who required a translation, the message was also delivered in English.
Generally a brief prayer was uttered in Sanskrit. The food attendants, who were always students, walked up and down between the several rows of people waiting to be served announcing what food they have to offer, generally in Hindi, but perhaps Sanskrit and English. Once again it depended on the number of international guests as to whether English was used. Generally, the distributor of the food used the Hindi terms for many of the Indian food items as they have found their way into English.
On occasion, I did notice some students use the English words rice and bread when distributing food to international guests. This does not mean that those students could speak English.
It appeared that most of the students used this form, perhaps unaware of the grammatical mistake, as all the other Sanskrit food terms have an —am suffix. For the older people and international guests, there were some tables and chairs. It was interesting at meal times to observe the students and teachers interacting in a more relaxed manner. Most people conversed almost exclusively in Hindi. If however, a group of Gujarati speakers sat together, they would speak Gujarati.
Sanskrit Bhagavad-gita Grammar, Volume 3
The same was true of the Nepali students, who clearly preferred to use Nepali with fellow Nepali speakers. Sanskrit was observed during meal times when I sat with students who wanted to speak with me in Sanskrit.
When I asked the teachers why they did not use this time to promote conversing in Sanskrit, they replied that they just wanted to relax and enjoy their food. This is the only official class for the purpose of teaching and encouraging the students to speak Sanskrit.
An example from this lesson is given below on how to conjugate a sentence from singular to plural and how adjectives must decline in order to agree with the object and its number. The teacher would first explain the main point of the lesson in Hindi.
Then he would provide examples in spoken Sanskrit followed by any necessary explanation in Hindi. Once the point was understood, he would get the entire school to repeat the sentence in spoken Sanskrit.
He then called several students to the microphone, one at a time, to repeat the example in Spoken Sanskrit. The following example shows how the students were taught to turn a neuter singular object into the plural form and have its adjective agree. The majority of the students did not appear too interested in this class. Even though the staff said they would like to speak Sanskrit with the students as much as possible, it seems that more effort could be applied toward achieving this goal.
Several reasons were given, though the biggest limiting factors were time, energy, and the willingness of the students and staff to participate. It would therefore seem that the positive answer to my question relates more to pride than reality.
Generally, it was used by a teacher issuing a command in Sanskrit, rather than engaging in a dialogue with students. It depended on the class and whether there was a critical mass of willing and competent participants. It seemed there was no rule that Sanskrit should be spoken, as on several occasions questions and answers were given in Hindi and possibly a short conversation would continue, until at some point, the conversation switched back to Sanskrit. This attitude was not shared by many of the younger students.
It was only when a particular rare word or phrase in Sanskrit was not known, or a synonym could not be found, that the conversation would briefly move back into Hindi.
The use of Sanskrit also seemed to be determined by the particular teacher running the class. In the mathematics class, Hindi is used exclusively, while in the English class, English is used almost exclusively. As a result of this investigation, I am able to provide the following figures, which reflect the fluency of the student Sanskrit speakers. It is not used for any official purpose. All communication occurred in Hindi.
The only time that I observed conversational Sanskrit in use was at the end of a program when people would mingle and converse in a relaxed manner. When the students were playing sport, it was generally either cricket or volleyball.
Some students played football. The other main recreational pursuit of the students was to play music. Throughout the week, a classically trained musician came to the school to teach the students about classical Indian music. The students would learn to sing, or to play the tabla percussion , and harmonium keyboard.
Most of the conversations that I observed or participated in during periods of playing sport or music occurred in Hindi, except for conversations with some of the more enthusiastic Sanskrit speaking students. The next section explains the attitudes of the students and staff towards speaking Sanskrit.
Attitudes towards spoken Sanskrit All of the participants who were interviewed claimed they wanted to either learn to speak Sanskrit or to speak it more fluently.
The teaching staff believes that once the student body grows from sixty to the anticipated three hundred, a critical mass of established students will encourage more frequent use of spoken Sanskrit. Even among the other residents of the ashram, there is a willingness to be involved in speaking Sanskrit. In fact, all respondents expressed a desire to one day hear Sanskrit being spoken as the super-ordinate or dominant language.
When pressed to respond to the question regarding why people want Sanskrit to be spoken more, most believed that it would give not only the school, but also the whole organisation more prestige and authority.
This community believed that the use of Sanskrit as the preferred language will happen sometime in the future, and did not seem to be in a rush to push for its immediate inception. For now, its use is mostly restricted to some classrooms and the leisure time of the teachers and some of the more enthusiastic students.
Most of the students who did not show much enthusiasm for conversing in Sanskrit responded by either saying they were too lazy, not confident, or did not feel they had enough practice. As for practice, all the residents are pressed for time, and any chance to study or practice conversing in Sanskrit is severely limited. Previously, a similar camp was run at the school, but there was no plan to hold another camp in the future.
The majority of students felt that laziness was the main reason why they did not speak Sanskrit more frequently. While the teachers invited the students to speak as much Sanskrit as they could, the students also felt that if they made mistakes then they would be punished.
When pressed about their individual preference, the majority were not eager to speak Sanskrit themselves, regarding this as the responsibility of other people. The overwhelming response was to become a Sanskrit teacher. The other minor preferences included IT professional, priest, and monk. Interesting grammatical features of Spoken Sanskrit In this section I move away from the ethnographic side of the research to explain some of the more prominent features of spoken Sanskrit that I observed.
As an alumnus of these camps I can attest to their efficiency at getting people to speak Sanskrit. The purpose of this study was to identify if the utterance of Sanskrit by people from different regions of South Asia would produce any phonological variety.
One striking feature is the flexibility of the sibilants. Below is an example of the way sibilants are used in Sanskrit.
In all modern Indian languages the two are used interchangeably, with the reality of the utterance being somewhere between the two phonemes. However, it would seem that all the students have a preference for the latter. It was assumed that the voiced fricative [v] would more likely follow. The purpose of this section is to show the phonetic variety of utterances made in Sanskrit. Careful observation shows that the two students 1 and 4 who have Kumouni as their L1 have produced almost identical utterances.
Compared with the other utterances, particularly the Nepali students 2 and 5. All of the examples below were observed during conversations with real people who possessed different levels of competency and fluency with Sanskrit. The rest of this chapter seeks to demonstrate how utterances in Sanskrit, including code-switching and mixing to Hindi section 4.
Grammatically this produces a masculine or neuter accusative singular noun. There is no attention paid to the gender of the loan word being incorporated.
English words are sanskritised in like manner. For instance, when a particular word in Sanskrit is not known or temporarily forgotten, the Hindi or English word would be sanskritised by simply adding the —am suffix. This was especially true for English loan words. Both students and teachers alike regarded its use as trivial with it generally producing brief bursts of laughter from everyone involved in the conversation. I observed the same phenomena in this speech community.
The first example was observed during a conversation I had with a student regarding the welfare of another student. Below is an example of how the respondent could have answered, using the infinite construction. In general, the imperfect tense was used less often. The reason for using the past participle is that it can be built directly from the verb stem.
It requires less augmentation than an infinite construction and is thus easier for the students to create. The following sentence demonstrates the use of two past active participles.
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Next Post. Related Posts. Search Bar. Social Widget.This example was produced after asking a student where he was going and why: Mitra kutra gacchati? This particular student could not speak English, hence its total absence from his statements. The teachers and students gave several reasons for reverting from Sanskrit to Hindi. Let it be O friend. Attitudes towards spoken Sanskrit 4.
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