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Flash floods are the most common flood type in normally-dry channels in arid zones, known as arroyos in the southwest United States and many other names elsewhere. In that setting, the first flood water to arrive is depleted as it wets the sandy stream bed.
The leading edge of the flood thus advances more slowly than later and higher flows. As a result, the rising limb of the hydrograph becomes ever quicker as the flood moves downstream, until the flow rate is so great that the depletion by wetting soil becomes insignificant.
Estuarine and coastal Flooding in estuaries is commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by winds and low barometric pressure , and they may be exacerbated by high upstream river flow. Coastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over-topping defenses or in severe cases by tsunami or tropical cyclones.
A storm surge , from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone , falls within this category. Research from the NHC National Hurricane Center explains: "Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted astronomical tides.
Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, which is defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide. This rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas particularly when storm surge coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides reaching up to 20 feet or more in some cases.
Although sometimes triggered by events such as flash flooding or snowmelt , urban flooding is a condition, characterized by its repetitive and systemic impacts on communities, that can happen regardless of whether or not affected communities are located within designated floodplains or near any body of water.
In urban areas, flood effects can be exacerbated by existing paved streets and roads, which increase the speed of flowing water. The flood flow in urbanized areas constitutes a hazard to both the population and infrastructure.
Different kinds civil constructions with garelly
Flood flows in urban environments have been studied relatively recently despite many centuries of flood events. Examples include outburst floods and lahars. Tsunamis can cause catastrophic coastal flooding, most commonly resulting from undersea earthquakes.
Causes Flood due to Cyclone Hudhud in Visakhapatnam Upslope factors The amount, location, and timing of water reaching a drainage channel from natural precipitation and controlled or uncontrolled reservoir releases determines the flow at downstream locations. Some precipitation evaporates, some slowly percolates through soil, some may be temporarily sequestered as snow or ice, and some may produce rapid runoff from surfaces including rock, pavement, roofs, and saturated or frozen ground.
The fraction of incident precipitation promptly reaching a drainage channel has been observed from nil for light rain on dry, level ground to as high as percent for warm rain on accumulated snow. Frequency of a precipitation threshold of interest may be determined from the number of measurements exceeding that threshold value within the total time period for which observations are available.
Individual data points are converted to intensity by dividing each measured depth by the period of time between observations. This intensity will be less than the actual peak intensity if the duration of the rainfall event was less than the fixed time interval for which measurements are reported.
Convective precipitation events thunderstorms tend to produce shorter duration storm events than orographic precipitation.
Duration, intensity, and frequency of rainfall events are important to flood prediction. Short duration precipitation is more significant to flooding within small drainage basins. Rainfall intensity is the second most important factor for watersheds of less than approximately 30 square miles or 80 square kilometres. The main channel slope is the second most important factor for larger watersheds. Channel slope and rainfall intensity become the third most important factors for small and large watersheds, respectively.
The time of concentration defines the critical duration of peak rainfall for the area of interest. Downslope factors Water flowing downhill ultimately encounters downstream conditions slowing movement.
The final limitation in coastal flooding lands is often the ocean or some coastal flooding bars which form natural lakes. In flooding low lands, elevation changes such as tidal fluctuations are significant determinants of coastal and estuarine flooding. Less predictable events like tsunamis and storm surges may also cause elevation changes in large bodies of water. Elevation of flowing water is controlled by the geometry of the flow channel and, especially, by depth of channel, speed of flow and amount of sediments in it  Flow channel restrictions like bridges and canyons tend to control water elevation above the restriction.
The actual control point for any given reach of the drainage may change with changing water elevation, so a closer point may control for lower water levels until a more distant point controls at higher water levels.
Effective flood channel geometry may be changed by growth of vegetation, accumulation of ice or debris, or construction of bridges, buildings, or levees within the flood channel. Coincidence Extreme flood events often result from coincidence such as unusually intense, warm rainfall melting heavy snow pack, producing channel obstructions from floating ice, and releasing small impoundments like beaver dams.
Recent field measurements during the —11 Queensland floods showed that any criterion solely based upon the flow velocity, water depth or specific momentum cannot account for the hazards caused by velocity and water depth fluctuations.
Culverted fills may be converted to impoundments if the culverts become blocked by debris, and flow may be diverted along streets. International Shipping at best shipping prices! Notify Me We will send an email as soon as we get it in stock. Write a Testimonial Few good words, go a long way, thanks!
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Energy Inf.Rainfall intensity is the second most important factor for watersheds of less than approximately 30 square miles or 80 square kilometres. Elevation of flowing water is controlled by the geometry of the flow channel and, especially, by depth of channel, speed of flow and amount of sediments in it  Flow channel restrictions like bridges and canyons tend to control water elevation above the restriction.
The main channel slope is the second most important factor for larger watersheds. Areal flooding begins in flat areas like floodplains and in local depressions not connected to a stream channel, because the velocity of overland flow depends on the surface slope. The book's download include the possibility to download all the visual contents contained in the text as images at DEI's website:
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