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Todos los derechos son reservados. La revista no se solidariza necesariamente con las opiniones en ella vertidas. No hay lugar a las comparaciones. Son diferentes. Y aunque esta vez no es solo su aspecto el que ha cambiado, sino su voz.
Son canciones que surgen de sus vidas y acaban en la memoria de muchos. Para Rod Stewart, "este es el disco que he esperado grabar toda mi vida. De paso, visitan a una serie de parientes y amigos. Andaba por los pueblos de las tierras altas de Soria en busca de un hogar. Su obra se halla representada en las mejores colecciones del mundo. En la foto junto a Henry. Las cuatro hermandades Ellas dan brillo y luz a la fe peruana su trabajo por difundir la fe es admirable, legalizados o no lo importante es llevar la palabra de Dios a quien lo necesite, la esperanza y el AMOR.
En el mercado hay una gran variedad de productos para este tipo de cabellos, porque la industria de productos capilares se han dado cuenta de las necesidades de la gente rubia y ha creado muchos productos para ellos.
La camomila es un componente vegetal de la familia de la margarita que procede de Europa y Asia. Ya en el Kama Sutra se indican muchas maneras para que el hombre incremente su vigor sexual con ali- mentos tales como la leche y la miel. Julian Gonzales,7 T. Juan de Dios, 9 T. Montigueldo, 66 M. Rio Ulla, 34 M. Pueblo Nuevo AV. Oporto, 22 M. Amparo Usera, 33 Tel.
Narcelo Usera Tel. San Bernardo, 16 Tel. Manzana, 3 Tel. Flor Alta 2 Tel. Puerto Rubio T. Pinto T. Bolivian economy also shows that the phy—shows, for example, that the Boliv- Another ailment that is clearly seen in country holds great productive potential ian economy has gone back to being just the Bolivian economy is the drop in pro- in areas like tourism, textiles, organic as highly dependent on natural resources ductivity, particularly in the public sec- products and the forest industry.
Howev- as it was in the s. Public investment tor. Serious problems of administration, er, to deliver on this potential requires a continues to concentrate resources in tra- inefficiency, corruption, institutional productive revolution that abandons the ditional sectors such as hydrocarbons and weakness and difficulties in implementa- economic and political logic tied strictly mining.
In , the exports of minerals, tion of public investment are some of the to natural resources. In particu- School of Production and Competitivity, exports. The level of investment in the oil sec- E-mail: Portrait of Change 12 n Human Rights as a Vocation 15 artist courtesy photo by credit emilyname callier of and promujer sanders url drclas.
It was 4: Five men gathered reception area be kept small so that visi- nowhere. Only sad and lonely vistas sur- at dawn at a lonely bus stop in a resi- tors would not be intimidated. Whether round this wilderness in the Bolivian al- dential zone.
They were wearing thick or not this story is true, the fact is that tiplano; off in the distance, the peaks of jackets to ward off the intense cold of the the lobby is less than square feet and the Andean mountains are visible. Adobe morning. They seemed nervous. Indeed, serves as a gateway to rooms and salons houses with small windows fend off the they were, because they were going to the with floors made of exquisite mahoga- cold in a zone where temperatures often presidential house.
Four journalists my- ny-mara, a type of semi-precious nearly fall to freezing. Residents survive on sub- self included and one photographer, all extinct wood from the site region.
I was large areas for socializing and not a few designed for the presidential residence.
It hurt me an ability to read fortunes from coffee household in October in Isallavi in to see this. Morales already had a serious relapse sometimes taking advantage of his full cles around his recently operated knee. He genuinely represents Evo continues: That year, we only had a sack will have more in the future. Yet he is also lunch and dinner. At that time it was the custom to gest verbal abuse.
He accused his former thing like jerked beef or a bone; for lunch, travel to the sugar harvest in Jujuy, in the ally and possible opposition presidential we had the corn toasted or stewed and in north of Argentina. One took the train to candidate Juan Del Granado of being the evening once again she toasted corn the border and then to La Quiaca, and corrupt and declared that his political and served it with a bit of meat. The corn then go further south. He arrived tant change in elites.
Yet he is the person Some of the events that he has most at a camp of sugar harvesters near Jujuy, who often pays no heed to the constitu- recounted without a doubt marked his where the workers were required to send tion and bends the rules to get rid of op- ponents. But contradictions exist. In this way called me Evito, Evito, and then she sat landing strips where Bolivian authori- he traveled an entire month at his fa- by my side. He lost his fluency bassy to coordinate approval of laws, would be better to have an adolescence in Aymara over the years because when convoked authorities to scold them, de- that did not require him to travel on foot the family arrived in Chapare in , cided military operations and anti-drug thirty days without shelter.
Aymara speakers and Quechua speakers laws; some ambassadors even chewed were fighting over which language to use; out presidents in public. Robert Gelbard, for example, criticized usual to interview a president. In the first ian lands, where to this date there is no visits by the ambassador or some U. I come from the ayllus.
After Yet Evo has argued with the U. If previous presidents were sub- and he became the darling of the anti- missive, he is hostile. He has insulted globalization groups and leftist non- U. This past sistent and often unfair way, even expel- January, he completed five years in of- ling Ambassador Philip Goldberg.
Are you sure?
One of me secretary of sports for the union, my fice with countless challenges still facing the main points of contention is Bolivian first position in the San Francisco Union him. His popularity has declined; the drug policy, which emphasizes voluntary in The U. An important insufficient, though the United Nations American imperialism.
Drug gasoline price increase in January. The experience clarified for him clares. And the truth is want that. Those years led him to develop a to be fixed. Until very recently, it seemed ro, capital of the department by the same in order to distribute their profits to likely that he would push through a con- name, to finish his high school studies.
Later, stitutional change so he could run for a He worked as a bricklayer and a baker. And finally, he placed a high value on Bolivian indig- returned, once again, to the altiplano. Many people accuse him of was a Nieman Fellow at Har- drought at home, he arrived in Chapare embracing this stance out of pure dema- vard. He adapted quickly to the goguery. He was managing editor of to hire some workers. This woman is the left of the Bolivian Socialist Falange who built our democracy.
A formed Bolivian Plurinational Assem- noted irreverence towards the powerful, bly. In the days that followed, his sen- as well as a gift for mediating conflict, timents were echoed not only by many provided early indications of her future of the urban elite and professionals of vocation. Her work in contrast to their much-maligned po- became President of the National Press reached its apogee with her appoint- litical systems.
Bolivia was no exception. Ini- Ombudswoman. In , ian society today is largely attributable to cal basis for her actions. The recount- course of my five-year investigation, a Busch. Intriguingly, little at- born into a deeply political household social and political events of recent years tention had been paid to these new state in La Paz on June 29, Her father, is perhaps exceeded only by Evo Morales.
Such erstwhile dictator, later democratically chagrin of government ministers. She proved through Chilean territory. Above all, she had the virtue of El Alto and left hundreds more wounded. This controversial action was re- An invitation in October for her to or ethnicity—and that the state had a re- garded even by some of her family as a stand as the first MAS Senator for La Paz sponsibility towards those most vulner- step too far.
Elected Sena- competing ideologies. Campaigns to re- cia Sitiada: Nevertheless, her election to human rights defender in the face of These events would eventually re- one of the highest offices in the land was formidable opposition. Tom Pegram DPhil in Politics from Her efforts—alongside those of local civil Nevertheless, her legacy as a human Nuffield College, University of Oxford society and church—to generate a space rights advocate, as well as the prestige is an interdisciplinary research fellow for dialogue are widely credited as hav- she brought to the office, has contributed at New York University School of Law.
He was the cal conflicts in the late s and s. Here, several writers reflect on different aspects of Bolivian identity. But the city is changing. In the and countryside are very strong. With notice. The city—just a few minutes out- s, most of the housing was only one the exception of a few very inhospitable side of La Paz—consisted of just a few story high. Now, there are more and more places, the altiplano has not emptied little houses and market stalls at the highrises, some in an art nouveau style out, though it has somewhat stagnated, end of the immense altiplano.
Younger generations born or different microclimates in order to guar- tually hanging off both sides. Towards the end of the colony use Aymara. Many of these citydwellers tari and his wife Bartolina Sisa. But together they make up home communities. Family celebrations Residents in La Paz endured famine and the same metropolis, the largest in the help seal these ties through rituals that death until the rebels were routed by country, so their interdependence is very cement exchanges, rights and mutual Spanish troops arrivng from Lima and strong.
About , workers from El obligations. These residents know that Buenos Aires. That encircling of La Paz Alto travel down to La Paz every day in if they fulfil their sundry communal ob- has remained deeply engraved in the col- the thousands of minibuses that ply be- ligations—including holding communal lective unconscious, with guilt and fear tween the two cities. And another huge offices and sponsoring patronal fiestas— buried within in the descendants of the quantity of people travel on Sundays in they will maintain their rights to the besieged population, and as a model and the other direction to the block 16 de land.
With the Popular Participa- battle flag for the Aymara people, despite Julio open air market that sells every- tion Law, rural municipalities have ob- the fact they were defeated. If La Paz tained many more resources, and some In , El Alto was declared a inde- is the political heart of Bolivia, El Alto is El Alto residents also run for mayors pendent municipality. Since , it ac- still its lungs. The bureaucracy of La Paz and councilmen in their home commu- tually numbers more inhabitants than is getting old; El Alto is an adolescent in nities.
Quite a few rural municipalities the capital city although El Alto is part the prime years. At important moments, even have a second informal seat in the of Greater La Paz. In , it is likely La Paz and El Alto have united to func- city—which could be the urban home of that the population will reach a million, tion as a single body working together on the mayor—to attend to the needs of resi- times greater than its population the political future of the country.
When someone new comes into the daily activities.
Some neighborhoods their right to living space by visiting the of El Alto operates as an intercultural were even originally formed by people board with a few cases of beer as a gift. It is always surprising to bellows, a fork in the road, in Spanish, other places came in, the neighborhood see the number of both traditional and bisagra, has strengthened the political was usually controlled by a board whose new salons for receptions, parties, din- importance of El Alto, with back-and- membership reflected its origins.
There is ners, dances or worship services. And forth fluctuations. Since the return of not a sector of El Alto that does not have in spite of the great number of meeting democracy in the s, the electorate some neighborhood association.
Because places, the streets are not only for walk- has vacillated between rightist and leftist of this community structure, even in the ing. They are also a blatantly public place candidates, generally favoring the most midst of the chaos of new neighborhoods for celebrating, dancing, selling, blocking populist tendency because of offers of that with only basic services are constant- vehicles and protesting.
Unlike in rural communities, there are the MAS party has led to an even stronger great urban concentrations in the conti- many people who live in the same zone or internal polarization between neighbor- nent.
On the one hand, El Alto and scams, these neighborhood boards hood assembies. As in any city, relation- is characterized as a great revolutionary are recognized by everyone as the lo- ships are not always based on physical city, with very ethnic overtones, particu- cal authority. Public works, services and proximity, but on other factors such as larly since October After the first even complaints to the municipal au- jobs, religion, youth groups and studies.
In this sense, we can talk protagonist of the mobilizations. Its resi- through these boards. Many times, the about traces of anomie here as well.
After the bloody events, I accompa- nied a street funeral wake for a girl who had come from the countryside a few months earlier. The crowd helped me up to the terrace roof of her house, where she had stacked up two bricks to be able to see what was happening out there on the avenue.
When she peered out, a war bul- let pierced her head, leaving a large lock of hair on the other side of the terrace as a witness to its trajectory. A few blocks down the street, another wake was be- ing held in a church for an unidentified youth and an old man whose bodies had been brought there in a wheelbarrow. Such vicious repression did not make This Art Nouveau building has a chalet built onto its roof. They were infuriated. Neighborhood Lucho Paredes, a former member of the who years before had been implicated in boards organized thousands from El Alto MIR party then in the government who a scandalous affair.
But in the election who converged together like a great flood severed his ties with that party after the the biggest surprise was the unknown from different points in El Alto to the cen- events. It was like a sped-up reit- rebels from El Alto and later founded his UN , whose polls were showing at two eration of the anti-colonial action.
A significant movement, and others—such as the min- a year later, in December , while number of El Alto residents opted for ing cooperatives—lent direct support. Finally, the Army Pepe Lucho narrowly won public office, was a warmi woman , young and on the gave in. The Alto simply did not participate. In the ments mostly in rural areas accepted ratism.
Yet prices of most goods could not be rolled back, nor did it appear possible to return to In October , a tumultuous indigenous years of intense activity eventually led to a state of unconditional love for Evo and popular uprising brought down the the election in of coca grower Evo and his government. On the hidden agen- The broad insurgent, indigenous and of the nation, someone who for almost da of certain leaders was a desire to popular movement fermenting over these two decades had headed forceful actions, strengthen their organization inter- nally in the wake of union elections.
The workers ended up with some pay increases, but not as much as they had asked for. In this sense, the gov- ernment was strengthened more than the COB. This time, El Alto was quiet and most schools kept their doors open, unlike the situation in La Paz. It may be im- possible to close it.
Since the s, these grow- practices. In turn, because these practices lonial and oligarchic economies of Asia ers and sellers have been calling for a free involve the consumption of coca, this po- and Peru. In contrast to this international addition to minerals gold, silver and, The history of inclusion of coca leaf onto market, Bolivian coca—despite being later, tin , was a feature of indigenous Schedule 1 of Prohibited Substances of partly in the hands of large estates—was modernity.
Luis Miguel Glave the UN Single Convention on Nar- more closely linked to the organic growth has revived 16th-century Andean terms cotic Drugs dates back to the 19th-cen- of regional and interregional markets, to denote this space: Forerunners population. At first, the what is now Bolivia, Peru and Argentina. This helps us under- From on, companies such as the stand the historical forces at play behind U.
The only Andean country that dination between mining-trading-coca could compete on the world market with growing that has demonstrated a note- its own pharmaceutical industry—albeit worthy continuity to this very day. These, in turn, the conspiracies of power and the corpo- refined the product to sell it in crystal rate interests that seek to block the po- form as cocaine hydrochloride in the tential of this market within the context world pharmaceutical market.
Since the early 20th Meanwhile, Bolivian coca, with its century, large pharmaceutical companies characteristic high price and aromatic have assembled an apparatus of violent quality, continued to supply the regional repression of coca under the abstract extended market for akhulliku or co- argument of defending public health in queo, which was linked to the silver, salt- consumer countries.
In opposition, coca peter, tin and copper markets and to the producers are resisting the many forms dynamic world of labor and urban and of this unequal and unsuccessful war. The internal coca market and is the result of empowerment pro- amounts to 3 million bolivianos … and is cesses, agency and decolonization.
It enjoyed ucts, poisons the body and leads to a lack the natural byproducts of the whole leaf great popularity in the United States of concentration at work. The report was and other preparations that contained until eclipsed by Coca-Cola, which of- ratified in as a report of the World pure cocaine from the laboratory.
Its report links the use of es, approved in Vienna in The One classic case was that of Mariani coca with malnutrition and poverty, resulting document reflects the new sen- sibilities of that decade with its impor- tant processes of ethnic self-affirmation. All coca farms outside of this demar- cated area were considered surplus— meaning that sooner or later they would be illegal. In order to forcibly eradicate coca farms, the government militarized the Cochabamba region with ensuing mass arrests, raids and murders.
Coca growers responded by replanting coca in ever more remote and inacces- sible areas. In , the United Na- tions approved a Plan of Action that, for drclas.
Once more, the wider plat- representativeness considerably. The October agenda became prohibition and anti-drug militariza- the basis for his electoral manifesto: Evo Morales tion, defense of coca and the war on cor- bamba —gained political momentum and the coca growers were no longer po- ruption.
The December electoral under the leadership of Evo Morales. In negotiations later that year, stroy the legal market for coca in Co- Coca Policy the mobilized grassroots coca growers chabamba. Of the six deaths caused by The increasingly explicit pressures and obtained recognition of the traditional the conflict, four were soldiers from the demands for the destruction of legal mar- uses of the leaf and the possibility of its Armed Forces, two of whom had been kets are pushing the government into an industrialization.
They also managed to cruelly lynched in revenge for the mur- ever more irate position of civil disobedi- get an explicit ban on the use of herbi- ders of two coca growers. All this ended ence in relation to the United Nations and cides and other chemical agents included in the embarrassing withdrawal of par- United States—to the point of expelling in the law, along with the manual eradi- liamentary privileges from Evo Morales, all U.
Drug Enforcement Agency mem- cation of surplus crops. Eradication was announced openly by U. Ambassador bers. The This turned the MAS into the sec- policy on the implications of eradicating day March for Life, Coca and Na- ond largest party in the country, expand- coca and the concomitant need to extend tional Sovereignty, which arrived in La the market for its legal use in order to of- Paz on September 20, , re-estab- fer an outlet for existing production.
The Six Federations and These conflicts are expressed, on the lo- their leader built on these events at the cal level, in pressures by the anti-drug ap- political level, achieving a number of paratus, in active and daily resistance by mayoral posts and councillorships and the producers and in the position— not eventually posts in parliament. The participation withdrawal of coca leaf from UN Sched- of the Six Federations was decisive in the ule 1 and the opening up of legal Cochabamba water war, with coca grow- markets abroad.
This opposition of in- terests explains the conflictive tone of the declarations on both sides, such as the ever more aggressive stand of the International Narcotics Control Board INCB and the United Nations against coca, which in turn resulted in an ultimatum and the U. He responded that on women in the elections. Today Paz. Since then, annual coca fairs, he would not and that instead he would the Plurinational Legislative Assembly seminars, concerts and public debates make women themselves ministers.
A contemporary Aymara Lazarte was the first woman to preside Although the Morales government has sociologist, historian, and subaltern over a Constitutional Assembly, Leonilda been criticized for forcing indigenous theorist, she is the previous director Zurita became the first female leader of women to address ethnic discrimination and longtime member of the Taller the Movimiento al Socialismo MAS over gender concerns, early indicators de Historia Oral Andina Workshop party in Cochabamba, and the list goes demonstrate that women in the Morales on Andean Oral History.
She is also on. Furthermore, thanks to the new Bo- government are exerting their influence an activist who works directly with livian constitution, the work of the Boliv- in both areas.
They organized dem- photo by rosalie parker loewen drclas. Today the ties in support of his candidacy.
Coming out of a long history directly with women at the grassroots. February 11, Afro-Bolivians are among many cultures in the plurinational society; right: Elected women are sometimes that a critical mass of women in po- and , the government distributed violently forced to resign their positions litical positions can positively impact 10, property titles to rural women, if the elected alternate is a man. In addi- the lives of all women. Bar- been excluded in Bolivia.
There is still some, but now for political dissent. Bolivian Morales. Gratzia Villarroel is an Associate Pro- ily. Norbert she was never home to wash their clothes ing impressive strides into the political College. She was the Santo and cook their meals. High teen pregnancy rates Harvard University. She is the Association of Women Counselors of guarantee equal pay for equal work have currently completing a manuscript en- Bolivia has documented and denounced yet to be enacted, and sexual harass- titled In the Footsteps of Bartolina Sisa: Indigenous Women, Evo Morales, and lence despite high rates of political repre- Nonetheless, there are early indicators the Bolivian Social Revolution.
By Kate McGurn Centellas On the sixth floor of an older building in or scientific research, or any kind of in- specific deities or cosmologies within La Paz is a small office with a modest formation, or um, if you know of anyone healing rituals performed by specialized sign printed on standard computer pa- I can talk to…. The dim light in the narrow hallway somewhat nervous and uncomfortable medicine can mean anything from pills makes it difficult for me to read the sign.
You need to come scriptions from medical doctors to drink Plants, held in December under the back and talk to the Vice-Minister, but herbal teas and take probiotics for com- sponsorship of this office.
Then one of the Both emphasize herbalism. Many middle-class, mesti- dad , created by Evo Morales as part of talk to me. The same man cal practices and emphasize the healing A middle-aged woman in Western makes a tent with his hands, interlac- power of Bolivian pharmacopeia. He tells me that they aim Yet Western medicine is the dominant from whole coca leaves, opens the door. Posters and informational with biomedical practitioners and insti- This is due to fear of the treatments pro- materials cover the walls; bookshelves tutions to achieve this.
It looks like a crowd- try of Health? Does this hint at a new ic system, are in short supply. Patients of- ed, collegial office of a small but produc- model—one that goes beyond medical ten need to provide their own bandages, tive department at a university, or the pluralism, often institutionally under- syringes and other crucial items before location of an overworked but dedicated stood as individual picking-and-choos- receiving treatment.
I nervously begin intercultural health care look like? Under according to the WHO. These terms are not iden- the work of articulation. Articulation is a maybe your office has put out any kind of tical in Bolivia. He a Venn diagram with the overlap as inter- iceMedicinaTradicional. Pluralism in medicine in this interaction. Ar- domains of social life, at least rhetorically model and will influence how smoothly ticulation, the model for how this hap- and officially: Part of this proj- in practice.
For instance, into one national culture. Instead, there practices. The emphasis on articulation when I inquired how articulation hap- are separate spheres for different cul- makes sense considering the state is now pens in Western-dominant spaces, I was tures, with interaction only occurring in being defined as comprised of many na- photo by kate mcgurn centellas drclas. Articulation in this model tries to level the playing field and allow for the public emergence and recognition of indigenous scientific and medical experts.
Yet it emphasizes separate and perhaps oppositional cultures within Bolivia, with little common ground be- yond this intercultural space. It has the poten- tial to move beyond individual choice models of medical pluralism and to provide a more holistic approach to medicine in Bolivia. After all, the Vice-Ministry is located in a small office some distance from the Ministry of Health and Sports, which Everyone thinks of Bolivia as an Andean tion of Bolivia: Santa Cruz and two new is perhaps symbolic of its relative dis- country, even though two thirds of it lies departments, Beni and Pando tance from its more mainstream ac- in the lowlands.
This area, also known as These three territories share sim- tivities. The most recent informe of the Bolivian Orient, is inhabited by more ilar cultural characteristics, as well as an health indicators in Bolivia mentions than thirty indigenous nations of diverse economy based on agricultural produc- traditional medicine only once in languages, though the majority of its tion, cattle farming and forestry.
A strong pages: The Bolivian Orient belongs to the diversity and mestizo heritage. Her , after the Independence War. In research interests include the anthro- the newly formed Bolivian state and gov- the region backed the Department pology of gender, science, higher edu- ernment sites were located quite a dis- Autonomy political proposal, which has cation, and local expertise. She is cur- tance away, in the Andean mining area, garnered votes in favor of this form of rently completing a book manuscript where most of the Bolivian population— government in several referendums over entitled Nurturing National Science: Between and politi- the region of Paititi.
During the colonial nant political and economic networks. Regional identities exist and have great distances and communication dif- the 19th century or political decentral- continued to strengthen despite of the ficulties. This provincial government also ization in the 20th century.
Because cient for internal consumption. In , ment was formed as a frontier territory of these historical circumstances, the U. It also sought to keep out ent than those in the rest of Bolivia. Nevertheless, municipal au- thorities were indeed elected. Nowadays, autonomous municipalities exist in Bolivia. During the s, Santa Cruz called for decentralization of power and the creation of departmental governments.
But this demand was not heeded by the central government. As a consequence, at the beginning of the 21st century, calls for department autonomy continue in Santa Cruz. Its strong regional cohe- sion, based on its cultural identity, has turned into a political movement seek- ing a change in the centralist and unitary The colonial-style downtown plaza in Santa Cruz is ringed by public and cultural institutions, government form of Bolivia.
Older buildings blend in with The two identities, the ethnic Andean modern ones. Researchers have centered their equate food supply. The first seeks aside regional demands. Indeed, many men who knew how to read and write. In , a nationalist revolution proved regional economic development. This event The tension between these two projects that has historically excluded them.
The transformed the country, allowing uni- has become evident in a political and current government, responsive to eth- versal suffrage, and among other mea- economic struggle since Morales came nic demands, has not answered the re- sures, promoting the development of into power in January Within its political project, Santa Cruz. From the second half of the Not only has the second half of the it categorizes these demands as opposi- 20th century onwards, Bolivia changed, 20th century been marked by confronta- tional, because they seek to end the cen- widening its territory with the inclusion tions between Santa Cruz and the central tralized power in the Andes and distrib- of the lowlands, and allowing citizenship government.
Santa Cruz, an once both agendas are satisfied: The first one, an eth- central government during the late s the departments. This is how a country nic identity, was based on the indigenous to obtain royalty payments for oil exports. The second, a regional identity, was region managed to transform and grow.
She can be reached at identities manifested themselves at the ritory. Here are glimpses of some visions of economy and development.
Populism here needs tions in and at the archaeo- Morales is a watershed in Bolivian history, to be understood in the Latin American logical site of Tiwanacu captured the closing the parenthesis of twenty years of sense, with its recurring invocations imagination of people in Bolivia and representative democracy and of a mar- of the masses, its ultranationalism, its throughout the world. They were not ket economy open to foreign trade and to state-centric focus, its Manichaeism— simple acts of inauguration of the first foreign capital, but it does not represent seeing things in terms of good and evil— indigenous president of Bolivia, but a break with that history.
Morales and and its reliance on caudillos strong- seemed almost to be a coronation of the coalition of social movements that men. Politics conducted by taking to the himself as the spiritual leader of the in- make up the Movement toward Social- streets and expressing general contempt digenous peoples of the Americas, with ism MAS harked back to the tradition for traditional channels of representative festive celebrations to delight tourists. Morales personally comes out of the as documented by Bolivian anthropolo- This revolution has been studied widely labor movement, although one that is sui gists.
Some critics commented sarcasti- both within Bolivia and internationally, generis—representing coca-leaf produc- cally that the spectacles were worthy of and the comparison has frequently been ing peasants. He has strongly opposed trans- petty bourgeoisie and from established ers were in their time, but their forms of national businesses that, in his words, political parties, the MAS leadership struggle are different.
Morales, an opposition leader be- ital. Likewise, he proposed an increased NGOs , many of them with foreign fund- fore assuming power, had led numerous involvement of the state in the economy ing.
The NGOs have provided MAS with demonstrations, sometimes violent ones, and an economic policy with emphasis a platform in the modern international against the governments that he charac- on distribution of income and of wealth. Frequently, words and environmental conservation and a more when MAS won by an ample majority, the aggressive discourse go far beyond just society, less based on profit and more surprised some observers because of its actual deeds.
In addition, one-time lead- strong showing, but such strength should A primary goal of the Revolu- ers of the Communist party and ultra-left not have been altogether unexpected.
At tion was to destroy the established order. Another leitmotif in the tion, a majority of the country, into the gional crisis that had begun with the Bra- two revolutions is the theme of decolo- national project, while the government zilian devaluation at the end of the last nization, although no one is sure exactly of Evo Morales puts the emphasis on the century.
The gap between the poor and what that means. A principal objective of affirmation of ethnic identities. Thus, privatizations have this definition of Bolivia as a plurination- had actually decreased in Bolivia. That reverted to nationalizations; pension and al state, made up of 36 different nations. Moreover, traditional politi- reformed, and the legal independence of ming from other factors, the new Politi- cal parties were suffering loss of prestige the Central Bank has been significantly cal Constitution outlines a more decen- because of their pacts and coalitions, curtailed.
There were also many al- embracing, as was the case in the than under the hypercentralist model in- legations of corruption, although most of Revolution. Not only does the MAS con- herited from the national revolution. This elec- controls almost all the state and munici- proclaims its strong commitment to the tion crowned a series of previous elec- pal governments, as well as the judicial struggle against corruption. And all of them have been created by professional graphic designers.
If you need a custom template, please contact us. Collaborative magazine creation Invite contributors: they will write their pages in the template you have chosen and send them to you.
You will be able to edit them but only you will be entitled to publish your magazine. Your are the editor-in chief! Interactivity Have fun now! Add a table of contents, links, videos, sound, etc.Initially, we were pursuing re- ing the land for planting?
April 26, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that, by allowing many copies of the image to circulate without any copyright notice, the owner of the copyright had allowed the image to pass into the public domain, thus establishing the right of Mad—or anyone else for that matter—to use the image.
And forth fluctuations. Navales, 18 Tel. Fortunately for the environment, as my friend said, Papelbol is not op- erating properly, and, chances are, will never do so.
Who reads MAD now? Pictures from space via ham radio. Retrieved February 2, In order to forcibly eradicate coca farms, the government militarized the Cochabamba region with ensuing mass arrests, raids and murders.
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