Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. a report on thermal. PDF | THIS paper briefly states the remedial measures to minimize the loss of performance on account of variations in uncontrollable input. A Seminar Report on " THERMAL POWER PLANT " For the partial fulfillment of the Layout of surface condenser (scroll to page 11 of 34 pdf pages)
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Thermal Power Generation Paper Presentation & Seminar Preview of the attached files: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the. Trends and Future Outlook for Thermal Power Plants. Fuji Electric's Medium- capacity Steam Turbines “FET Series”. Present Developmental Status of Fuji . 4 INTRODUCTION Kota Super Thermal Power Plant is Rajasthan's first major Coal fired Power plant. It is located on the left bank of the Chambal River at.
The heat converts water to steam, which in turn drives the turbine and the generator to produce electricity. The heat produced is used to convert water into steam. The steam runs the turbine and generator and the electricity is generated by the generator which is then transmitted to grid. The fission energy is transported from the fuel bundle with the help of high-pressure heavy water called Primary Heat Transport PHT. This steam is then transported through pipes to turbine hall where the turbine hall where the turbine and the generator are installed.
This steam is then admitted to the turbine, which runs at a speed of rpm. The generator also runs at the same speed as both are coupled together. The generator rotor is excited here with the DC voltage and EMF is produced at the stator of generator at This steam after working in the turbine is condensed into a surface type of condenser and the condensed steam are again fed back to the steam generator through a chain of six re-heaters.
The probability that a high energy neutron emitted in a fission reaction can directly cause fission is quite low. In order to build a system in which fast neutrons sustain the chain reaction, highly enriched uranium is needed, which is very expensive.
A more feasible way is to use materials that slow down the neutrons to such lower energies at which the probability of causing fission is significantly higher. These neutrons slowing down materials are the so called moderators.
With the aid of some adequate moderator one might as well achieve chain reaction using natural 0. If we simplify things a little, there are two major requirements that a moderator material should meet; it should have a low atomic mass number as possible as possible and its neutron absorbing ability should be as low as possible. In practice, four elements meet these requirements: water, heavy water, graphite and Beryllium.
Among these water is the most widespread moderator. The properties of heavy-water are actually better but its disadvantage is the very high price. Obviously, the number of neutrons present in the reactor must be regulated or controlled since this determines the rate of fission and thus the energy released per second.
In order to control the chain reaction one should use materials which tend to capture neutrons at a high probability. The most widespread neutron absorbers are Cadmium and Boron. In India, at Narora Atomic Power Plant, Cadmium sandwiched steel rods have been used, because due to low strength Cadmium alone cannot be used.
The so called control rods are important tools to control reactor. These are made of neutron absorbing materials and can be moved between the fuel assemblies. For example, if one wishes to decrease the power of the reactor it is sufficient to push a control rod a little inner. The control rods are particularly useful for the short term control and stopping the reactor chain reaction.
For long term regulation usually Boric acid dissolved in the moderator is used. H2O and D2O Moderation is a process of the reduction of the initial high kinetic energy of the free neutron.
Since energy is conserved, this reduction of the neutron kinetic energy takes place by transfer of energy to a material known as a moderator. It is also known as neutron slowing down, since along with the reduction of energy comes a reduction in speed.
Heavy Water as a Moderator Heavy water is used both as a moderator and coolant. The moderator system comprises of Heavy water and Helium system.
Moderator D2O system circulating pump take suction from bottom of callandria and discharge back to the callandria through moderator heat exchanger for maintaining moderator temperature. It is a high pressure and high temperature circuit.
As generator sizes increased, eventually turbines took over they encres the hose power. Thus hydel power plants cannot be installed with ease and are limited to certain locations. Widely available alternate flues: Many alternate fuels such as coal, diesel, nuclear fuels, geo-thermal energy sources, solar-energy, biomass fuels can be used to generate power using steam cycles.
Maintenance and lubrication cost is lower: Once installed, these require less maintenance costs and on repairs. Lubrication is not a major problem compared to hydel power plant. Coal is abundant: Coal is available in excess quantities in India and is rich form of energy available at relatively lower cost. Working fluid remains within the system, and need not be replaced every time thus simplifies the process.
Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report
By fuel Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine generator. Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine. A coal-fired power station produces electricity by burning coal to generate steam, and has the side-effect of producing a large amount of carbon dioxide, which is released from burning coal and contributes to global warming Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks.
Biomass Fuelled Power Plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane, municipal solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass.
Solar thermal electric plants use sunlight to boil water, which turns the generator. By prime mover Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases air and combustion products to directly operate the turbine.
Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the hot exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage Microturbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are lowcost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production Efficiency Power is energy per unit time.
The power output or capacity of an electric plant can be expressed in units of megawatts electric MWe. This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics See: Carnot cycle. The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers.
If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration. An important class of thermal power station is associated with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products.
Since the efficiency of the plant is fundamentally limited by the ratio of the absolute temperatures of the steam at turbine input and output, efficiency improvements require use of higher temperature, and therefore higher pressure, steam. Historically, other working fluids such as mercury have been experimentally used in a mercury vapor turbine power plant, since these can attain higher temperatures than water at lower working pressures.
However, the obvious hazards of toxicity, and poor heat transfer properties, have ruled out mercury as a working fluid.
In common speech, steam most often refers to the visible white mist that condenses above boiling water as the hot vapor mixes with the cooler air. Turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow and converts it into useful work. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum, with blades attached.
Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine exare windmills and waterwheels. Fig Typical turbine Electric generator An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit.
Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report
It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. Fig Typical Generator A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applyingheat energy to water.
A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required.
The steam is used to turn a turbine, which is connected to a generator. When the turbine turns, electricity is generated and given as output by the generator, which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines. Fig steam power generation Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station 1.Fundamentals of Steam Power by Kenneth Weston.
In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy, often from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy.
The railway cars are unloaded at site by rotary dumpers or side tilt dumpers to tip over onto conveyor belts below. Commercial electric utility power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.
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