ACSM's health-related physical fitness assessment manual / American College of Sports Medicine, editor, Leonard A. Kaminsky Kaminsky, Leonard A., The goal of this Fourth Edition of ACSM's Health-Related Physical Fitness Manual J. Milstead's computerescue.info ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards health. Sexual Fitness at Any Age PDF ebook Updated for its Third Edition, this. Editorial Reviews. Review. "It is perfect for introducing students to health and fitness download ACSM's Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual: Read 34 Kindle Store Reviews - computerescue.info
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Ebook READ ONLINE. Click button below to download or read this book. [PDF] Download ACSM's Health-Related Physical. Fitness Assessment Manual Ebook . ACSM's Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Read [PDF] Book of Sports Medicine, this authoritative manual teaches health fitness. ACSM Health Related - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual THIRD EDITION ACSM'S.
Knowing these risks and discomforts, and having had an opportunity to ask questions that have been answered to my satisfaction, I consent to participate in this test. Figure Modications to the form can be made to t specic needs of the HRPF assessment program, and it is recommended that legal counsel review the nal form to limit the chances of legal liability.
Finally, it is essential that different informed consent forms be used for each different component of a program i. Rather, it is a process of documentation that attests to the fact that clear communications have taken place between the individual who is desiring to have the HRPF assessment and the professional who will be administering the assessments.
It is through the process of articulating the risks and benets of the assessment that professionals help their clients make informed decisions about whether to complete the HRPF assessment. Although the evidence suggests that for most people expected benets of performing the assessment outweigh the associated risks, each client needs to make an informed decision based on personal factors.
To begin the informed consent process, the client should carefully read the entire form or have the form read to him or her while he or she follows along. Next, the professional should review some of the key elements of the assessment e. One key point of emphasis is that the client will play an important role in the process. Specically, the client has the responsibility of informing test administrators of any problems experienced past, present, and during the physical tness assessment that may increase the risk of the test or preclude participation.
This information is essential to minimize the risks involved with the assessment and can optimize the benets. Finally, the client should be allowed and encouraged to ask any questions before completing the informed consent process with a signature. An important aspect of the informed consent process is reviewing key elements with the client and answering any questions the client may have.
Below are examples of some common HRPF assessments and sample explanations of each. Anthropometry or body composition: This test is being performed to obtain an estimate of your total body fat percentage.
We will determine your body fat percentage by taking measurements with a set of calipers at different sites on your body. We do this by pinching and pulling on the skin at these different locations.
We will also measure some body girths with a tape measure to provide an indication of distribution of the fat on your body. Cardiorespiratory tness: This test is being performed to obtain an estimate of your cardiorespiratory tness. The test will require you to exercise on a stationary cycle for 6 to 12 minutes.
The intensity of the test will be limited to a level below your maximal exertion point. During the test we will monitor your heart rate and blood pressure response to the submaximal exercise. Flexibility: This test is being performed to obtain a measure of the exibility of your lower back and legs.
We will measure how far you can reach to or beyond your toes while sitting with your knees out straight. Muscular tness: This test is being performed to obtain a measure of your muscle strength by having you squeeze a hand grip dynamometer as hard as you can.
We will also measure muscle endurance by having you perform as many sit-ups as you can in a 1-minute time period. This information may be used for determining the individuals risks for chronic disease and risks related to physical activity participation. As noted earlier in this chapter, there are risks associated with exercise, particularly when it is of vigorous intensity.
Surgeon General in the Report on Physical Activity and Health 3 recommended that Previously inactive men over age 40, women over age 50, and people at high risk for CVD [cardiovascular disease] should rst consult a physician before embarking on a program of vigorous physical activity to which they are unaccustomed.
People with disease should be evaluated by a physician rst. The preassessment screening, like the informed consent, is a dynamic process. It may vary in its scope and components depending on the clients needs based on his or her health and medical status e.
There are many reasons why clients should be screened prior to participation in an HRPF assessment program. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Acsm's health related physical fitness assessment read [pdf] 1. Book Details Author: American College of Sports Medicine Pages: LWW Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Description Publisher's Note: Products downloadd from 3rd Party sellers are not guaranteed by the Publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product.
Published by the American College of Sports Medicine, this authoritative manual teaches health fitness professionals and students how to appropriately conduct fitness assessment testing. The focus on assessment makes this content critical for those studying to enter the fitness and rehabilitation fields, as well as those already working who need to align their practice to industry standards. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
Increased waist circumference can also be a marker for increased risk even in persons of normal weight.
It is also important to understand that the BMI scale is not a perfect marker for obesity. For the latter case. Dashes — indicate that no additional risk at these levels of BMI was assigned. The voluntary nature of physical activity makes it the most variable component of total daily energy expenditure. Some have advocated the additional measurement of the hip circumference to assess body fat distribution.
Given these recommendations. Walking is scored as They further state that these physical activity targets can be obtained by accumulating bouts of activity throughout the day in smaller increments.
For the most part. There are many questionnaires that have been developed to assess physical activity. The level of detail can range from a four-item questionnaire attempting to distinguish overall global levels of activity low vs.
For instance. From a risk assessment perspective. These types of monitors are typically worn on the body. This includes at work and at home. How much time did you usually spend doing vigorous physical activities on one of those days? During the last 7 days. Vigorous physical activities refer to activities that take hard physical effort and make you breathe much harder than normal.
Do not include walking. Please answer each question even if you do not consider yourself to be an active person. The questions will ask you about the time you spent being physically active in the last 7 days.
Please think about the activities you do at work. Think only about those physical activities that you did for at least 10 minutes at a time. Think about all the vigorous activities that you did in the last 7 days.
How much time did you usually spend doing moderate physical activities on one of those days? Moderate activities refer to activities that take moderate physical effort and make you breathe somewhat harder than normal. Many facilities now offer assessments with pedometers because of the relatively low cost of these devices and the research evidence that supports their accuracy. Manufacturers of these devices typically specify the chosen location to wear such devices. In choosing a physical activity assessment tool.
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Include time spent at work. The advantages and disadvantages of subjective and objective methods of assessing physical activity are outlined in Table 3. In this instance. Thank you for participating. This may include time spent sitting at a desk. How much time did you usually spend walking on one of those days? Objective monitors are usually small.
TABLE 3. Many of these output units are not interchangeable. Assessing physical activity for a minimum of 3 weekdays and at least 1 weekend day is optimal. Accelerometers may output the number of minutes a person spends in light-. The validity of the method chosen and the selected output variable should always be considered when measuring physical activity levels.
Many different models of pedometers and accelerometers are available to objectively measure physical activity. For this purpose.
Those interested in more detailed interpretations should review the section on pulmonary function testing in Chapter 3 of the GETP8. Although often thought of as a condition seen primarily in. Testing of pulmonary function can involve many different tests with specialized equipment that need to be administered by professionals with training in these procedures. This volume of air is called the forced expiratory volume in 1 second FEV1.
The GETP8 notes that among the list of indications for pulmonary function testing are: The total amount of air expelled in this procedure is called the forced vital capacity FVC. Seasonal variation is also evident in physical activity behavior and needs to be considered when assessing and comparing physical activity patterns. It is common to use the ratio of these two variables. The interpretation can become more detailed as noted in Table 3.
The test requires the client to perform a maximal inhalation. November Enright P. Interpretive strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respir J. Available from: Viegi G.
Pellegrino R. Global strategy for the diagnosis. Calverly PM. Buist AS. Accessed February Have you had an early or surgically induced menopause? This test will safely and accurately measure your bone density and reliably predict your risk of future fracture.
Are you a postmenopausal woman?
Osteoporosis is preventable if bone loss is detected early. Osteoporosis is a major public health threat for 44 million Americans. An osteoporosis screening questionnaire. Are you physically inactive? If you already have osteoporosis. Have you taken. Have you or a member of your immediate family broken a bone as an adult? If the questions suggest that you are at risk for developing osteoporosis.
Ten million individuals already have osteoporosis and 34 million more have low bone mass placing them at increased risk for developing osteoporosis and the fractures it causes. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Is your diet low in dairy products and other sources of calcium?
Learn more about this bone-thinning disease that causes serious fractures. Complete the questionnaire to determine your risk for developing osteoporosis. Do you smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol in excess? Eighty percent of those affected by osteoporosis are women.
Osteoporosis is a complex disease and not all of its causes are known. Do you have a small. Your healthcare provider may prescribe a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D. Your healthcare provider may recommend that you have a bone mass measurement test.
Have you taken high doses of thyroid medication or used glucocorticoids e. A version of a short. These additional measurements do require specialized training and some instrumentation. Record the values that were measured on you below do not let the technician see the previous measurement values. Record the results of this calibration check and provide an interpretation.
Graph the data and comment on the variability in the measurements. Provide a critique of any deviations from recommended techniques you observed from watching the technicians. Provide responses for the following: Calculate the BMI show your work on these calculations. Using the mean values for systolic BP and diastolic BP. Bakis GL. May Box 3. American Heart Association call to action: Accessed July Chobanian AV.
The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention. Eckel RH. Written Report 1.
Using the mean values for height. International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Provide an interpretation of these tests and explain what recommendation you would make to Jerome.
Lee I-M. Standards of medical care in diabetes Awareness of blood sugar critically lacking despite diabetes increase. Black HR. Krauss RM. Bethesda MD June Bloodborne pathogens regulations Standards 29 CFR: National Institutes of Health. Ogedegbe G. National Heart. Goff D. Miller NH. New survey reveals consumers at risk of high cholesterol complications not taking steps to control it. Fast facts on osteoporosis.
Krakoff LR. December National Consumer League. Smith Jr SC. Blair SN. Allen J. Department of Labor. Artinina NT.
Occupational Health and Safety Administration. American Society of Hypertension. NIH Pub. A joint statement from the American Heart Association. Call to action on the use and reimbursement for home blood pressure monitoring. Pickering TG. Sarcopenia is increasingly being targeted as a major predictor of disability. As a result of the high prevalence of obesity. Unless clinically indicated.
It is also important to recognize changes in health-related components of body composition that accompany aging. Some clinical measures. There is clinical value to knowing the amount of these varied body components. In the most general sense. Many adults perform only limited amounts of activities requiring high levels of muscular power.
Although assessment of the total amount of muscle mass is not obtained in the HRPF body composition assessment. This is particularly relevant for girls and young women who are at greater risk for developing eating disorders and all athletes who are involved in sports where weight impacts performance. The simple. The focus of this chapter will be on the HRPF assessment of estimates of body fat percentage.
These devices take a cross-sectional picture think of this as one thin slice of a region of the body. Figure 4. An overview of underwater weighing is provided later in this chapter. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thighs of a year-old woman.
Ball State University—Dr. In these experimental research studies the scientists will take a scan at the same location before and after the intervention and then accurately measure the change in tissue at this segment of the body. Note the layer of subcutaneous fat on both of these scans. The main outcome measure from the DXA scan is bone density. This method. Two commonly used generalized equations. Two widely used HRPF body composition assessment methods. These methods are discussed below.
Another valuable feature of DXA.
[PDF] Download ACSM's Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual Ebook READ ONLINE
These equations were developed around the knowledge that body mass can be differentiated on two components: Once derived. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen of an older man.
From an HRPF body composition assessment perspective. Siri equation: To determine body volume using the underwater weighing method requires measurements of body weight. This method measures body volume via water displacement. A body composition report from a total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Continued before entering the water and the loss of body weight when submerged underwater.
This trapped air contributes to buoyancy and thus needs to be factored into the calculation of underwater weight. The formula for calculating body volume from this procedure is: The density of water can be determined at the following web site: Body Composition Assessment. Owing to the effort requirement to maximally exhale while being submerged underwater.
Common formulas used to estimate residual volume based on gender. There is. Adapted from Heyward VH. Typically a freestanding tank of water is used for the underwater weighing procedure. Residual volume L: The assessment procedures for underwater weighing are provided in Box 4. Human Kinetics. Stolarczyk LM.
The procedure requires the client to follow similar pretest standardizations as for underwater weighing see Box 4. The underwater weighing procedure. This plethysmograph has two chambers.
The client only needs to sit still while the instrument makes the measures of body volume. The outcome measure of body volume is then used to calculate Db. Note that the measurement scale should be facing up for viewing. At that point they need to remain underwater as long as possible and remain as still as possible to obtain a stable underwater weight reading.
Explain to clients that they should begin exhaling as they gently submerge themselves under the water and to continue exhaling as much as possible. Clients should be in a normally hydrated state and should not have eaten for at least 3 hours.
This procedure will need to be repeated multiple times typically 5—10 as there is generally a learning effect for this procedure. Obtain a body weight measurement on clients before they enter the water. One source of variability in skinfold measurements occurs from using a caliper that does not deliver the recommended amount of force. Clients should remove any makeup. The caliper distance measurement should also be checked using a simple standardized calibrations block as shown in Figure 4.
Measure the temperature of the water. Have clients enter the water and sit on the suspended chair.
ACSM's Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual
If there is any doubt about the fold containing some muscle tissue. Have clients submerge themselves underwater. The fold will contain two layers of skin with only fat in between. The arms of the caliper are opened and applied to the skinfold by gradually releasing the pressure on the caliper arms.
Some clients may require that the chair be weighted if while performing the procedure a part of their body breaks the surface of the water because of buoyancy.
Immediately prior to the assessment clients should empty their bladder and attempt to empty their bowels. Repeat step 4 until at least three consecutive underwater weight readings do not increase.
A client having his body fat percentage estimated using whole body plethysmography. The method to check the distance calibration of a pair of skinfold calipers. Careful attention to the anatomic landmarks and the actual measurement of distances is important for obtaining accurate and reliable measures. Wait 1 to 2 seconds not longer before reading caliper. The caliper should be placed directly on the skin surface.
Diagonal fold at a degree angle. Rotate through measurement sites. Box 4. A pinch should be maintained while reading the caliper. Take duplicate measures at each site. The abdomen skinfold site. The suprailiac skinfold site. The thigh skinfold site. The midaxillary skinfold site.
Variation in the location of the skinfold site and the application of the calipers are the two largest sources of error in skinfold measures. The most commonly used method for estimating Db via skinfold measurement employs the generalized equations provided in Box 4.
The subscapular skinfold site. B illustrates examples of correct and incorrect procedures for skinfold assessments. Because the proportion of subcutaneous to total fat is known to vary between genders.
The chest skinfold site. The triceps skinfold site. For both men and women. Perhaps the most important application is the use of circumferences to determine body fat distribution as was covered in Chapter 3.
The only equipment requirement is an inexpensive measurement tape. Example of correct procedures for skinfold assessments The bioelectrical impedance analyzer introduces a small electrical current into the body and measures the resistance to that current as it passes through the body.
Example of incorrect procedures for skinfold assessments. There are some equations that use either circumferences or a combination of circumference and skinfold measurements to estimate body fat percentage. Jackson AS. Adapted from Jackson AS. Because the BIA measure is dependent on the total body water and is based on assumptions about water content of fat and lean tissues. Comp Ther. Schmidt DH. Pollock ML. Patients who are prescribed a medication that has a diuretic property should avoid this test.
Phys Sport Med. Practical assessment of body composition. To control for factors that affect hydration status. Martorell R. With the subject standing. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Bouchard C. If a Gulick spring-loaded handle is used. Lohman TG. Chumlea WC. With the subject standing erect and feet together. Standardized Description of Circumference Sites and Procedures With the subject standing upright and relaxed. The tape should be placed on the skin surface without compressing the subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Rotate through measurement sites or allow time for skin to regain normal texture. With the subject standing erect and arms hanging freely at the sides with hands facing the thigh.
Roche AF. Available online at http: The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research. A bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA device that utilizes electrodes on the hand and foot. A handheld BIA device.
Some devices require placing electrodes on the hand and foot to collect the information. Others require that a person hold handles or stand on a platform to gather the information. TABLE 4. Similar to the skinfold method.
Prior to the measurement. Determine fat-free weight: As discussed in Chapter 1.
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A simple method to derive an estimate of a goal body weight is based on the following equation. It is important to recognize that these values are based on the population that has received these measures and are expressed as percentiles. Table 4. Although there is not a true gold standard measure of body composition. Using the seven-site formula. Use Box 4. Show your calculations on a separate sheet of paper and hand them in with the rest of the assignment. Record values obtained on you.
Boren HG. If David desired to be at the 75th percentile for men his age.
His body volume was determined to be Kory RC. The lung volume and its subdivisions in normal men. Drizd TA. Ann N Y Acad Sci. The gross composition of the body. Adv Biol Med Physiol. Am Rev Respir Dis. Siri WE. Am J Med. Densitometric analysis of body composition: Grade F. Roentgenographic determination of total lung capacity: Brozek J.
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David weighed pounds and was tested in a whole body plethysmograph. Anderson J. Snyder JC. Provide David with an interpretation of his estimated body fat percentage using a percentile score. Among the advantages for free weights are uniformity i. Beyond the physiologic factors of increasing blood circulation to the muscles and increasing the temperature of the muscles.
Dynamic contractions are those that generate force to move an object. Like many other activities. This may involve pushing or pulling against an immovable object or holding an object in place.
The muscle changes in length during these contractions. Because many muscular contractions involve more than one muscle. Failure to account for this familiarization will affect the accuracy of the assessment results. Contractions that produce a lengthening of the muscle are termed eccentric. One unique aspect of muscle measurements is that there are approximately skeletal muscles in the human body.
This is often called a learning effect. During a static contraction. Each has advantages and disadvantages. In muscular endurance testing. This issue can be addressed by performing a comparison check on the old versus the new equipment to determine what differences..
If differences are found. Resistance exercise machines with supported weights. Different manufacturers have different mechanisms of varying the resistance. An example of a resistance exercise unit that utilizes a weight stack for loading.
Variations in positioning can potentially allow other muscle groups to contribute to movement of the load. The best-case scenario for HRPF assessment of muscular strength would be to utilize an assessment of a group of different muscles in some sort of composite score to capture a concept of overall strength of an individual.
This decision will be dictated. Standardization of the positioning is important to allow accurate assessment of the muscle group being measured. Depending on the method used to select the resistance. A major decision to be made. From an assessment perspective.
Grip-strength norms are given in Table 5. Dynamometers The most commonly performed static strength test is the measurement of grip strength using a handgrip dynamometer. They can be mounted to walls or tables and can be set up to mimic a variety of common activities. Canadian Physical Activity. These units can be adjusted to test multiple joint angles through a range of motion for a particular muscular contraction.
Reprinted with permission from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Tensiometers Another popular form of static strength assessment employs a cable tensiometer.
An example of the type of dynamometer used for this assessment is shown in Figure 5. These tests were popular and widely used in physical education programs owing to their low cost and durability. Take the highest of the three readings for each hand and add these two values one from each hand together as the measure of handgrip strength to compare with the norms presented in Table 5.The clients impression of a program may depend on this rst contact with the staff.
Commercial models have also become relatively inexpensive for individuals to perform self-monitoring of BP at home Fitness professionals should inform clients if their blood pressure is elevated in the hypertensive range and recommend that they follow up with their healthcare provider. Todd has never smoked. Product details File Size: If a medical exam is not deemed necessary. Caspersen CJ. If a Gulick spring-loaded handle is used.
Although the exact approach may vary somewhat depending on the clients personality, performing this initial stage of the assessment with calm professionalism is recommended.
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