Biotechnology procedures and experiments handbook / S. Harisha. p. cm. — (An introduction to biotechnology). Originally published: An introduction to practical. “The NOVA Biotech Program is a rare and exciting experience. For me, the Biotech The Biotechnology Program Student Handbook is designed to provide. Fifth edition. Biotechnology is the major technology of the twenty-first century – yet few .. defining aim of this book is to re-establish the correct understanding of .
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PDF | On Jan 30, , Sandeep Telkar and others published Basic Concept of In book: Basic Concept of Biotechnology, Edition: 1, Chapter. PDF | Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in popularity of biotechnology as a subject of teaching at undergraduate as well as. Lab Manual: ―BIOL Introduction to Biotechnology Laboratory Manual‖ One copy of the lab . computerescue.info
In the pounds has also been emphasized. Price: Rs ISBN The short cellular and biological functions. More- a subject of teaching at undergraduate as Preface betrays the hopeless inadequacy over, functions of hydroxyl carboxylic well as postgraduate levels in the coun- of the book since not only the grammar acid receptors and their synthetic ligands, try.
This has also entailed greater interest and syntax have numerous problems, but as targets for various diseases have been in genetics and molecular biology. In what is written here is more worrisome. Regrettably however, most is a painful path.
With the simple improved health. Watson and Creek axes on communication. In this context, I explored the molecular base of genetics; microbial transformation of the therapeu- felt hopeful on being invited by Current which started the era of biotechnology.
Genetics and Biotechnology are the two can modulate their efficacy and toxicity. The engineering com- well known and we must let him have examine Volume 1 on 'Microbial ponent of this technological area is his day! This chapter is much closer to classical textbook treatment chemical Engineering'.
It is possible volume's title. Before outlining and commenting in with explanatory diagrams and illustrathat Volume 2 provides for a more integrated view of biotechnology than is detail on the contents of the Handbook, tions dominant rather than tables.
It is one point should be made. Except for to me less satisfying than the other parts evident from Volume 3. The editor's conservative views on its price and size and, as noted above, of the Handbook because, unlike biotechnology are expressed in another the size isn't all that bad!
Each chapter presents an would be an ideal companion to the found elsewhere, e. Indeed, 96 Trends in Bwtechnology, Vol. Here the Handbook is in top form. Succinct but extremely clear explanations of the various yield expressions and their interrelations are supported by pages of tabular and graphical data. Indeed, I did not realize how much information is available on the stoichiometry of microbial activities.
A happy blend of text and data, this chapter deals with metabolic activity and the factors which control it. This chapter treats in considerable detail the 'great fermentations' - e.
Again, the sheer volume of information presented is breathtaking. This chapter is structured much like 4 and is surely one of the book's most satisfying. It offers a general introduction nomenclature, general characteristics, and properties followed by uses and sources of enzymes and immobilized enzymes and cell technology.
The textual com- ponents are again very well supported start, Atkinson and Mavituna have by tables and graphs. The following 7 available anywhere. The format used is lucid and Downstream Process Engineering; 13 useful - raw materials, process outline Product Recovery Processes and Unit with flow sheets, often several , and Operations.
Amrita School of Biotechnology Student Handbook
Tables summarize These chapters tend, as did Chapter variations on the themes. Its fine balance earlier case. Nowhere else in the between explanation text and doculiterature of 'biochemical engineering' mentation reference make it far and is there so complete and balanced a away the most useful single volume on treatment of the 'engineering base' for bioprocess technology and biochemical bioprocess design and control; the engineering available and it should Handbook is in a very real sense a 'sole surely hold that position for many source'!
Mathematical treatments are years.
Kent and Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology
University of Virginia, cases - is extensive. Chibata, S. Fukui and L. Wingard Jr. Complex negotiations with Total Compagnie Francaise des Petroles ended with the group's withdrawing from Atochimie and Chloe Chimie, after which Elf Aquitaine set up its Atochem subsidiary to encompass all its chemical activities.
After a long and brilliant independent career, Rousselot was split between Atochem and Sanofi. Already sorely tried, CdF Chimie came out the worst from the restructuring.
It inherited the Oxo alcohols and organic acids of the Hames unit and had to call upon Esso Chimie to ensure their survival; it also got an ABS unit that was too small, which it exchanged with Borg Warner for a 30 percent share in their European subsidiary company-the Villers Saint-Paul site, which could become profitable only with the help of the industries to be set up there; the polyester resins division of the Chauny unit, and the downstream activities of the Stratinor subsidiary, both open to stiff competition.
Among the lot there were some profitable sectors, however, such as Norsolor's acrylics , well integrated on the Carling site, and Societe Lorilleux, a small ink multinational of PCUK's.
This enormous restructuring job, no doubt, did produce chemical groups with sounder bases and a more promising future. But the financial cost to the country was considerable, for not only were the shareholders refunded with public money to compensate for nationalization, but the companies that were now state-controlled had to be bailed out: their losses in were even higher than those registered the previous year.
Just as high was the social cost. Manpower cuts which the former company leaders had been loath to carry out had become not only absolutely necessary but also easier to implement by a leftwing administration.
Montedison had been able to show balanced books only once in ten years, in The rather belated restructuring measures consisted, in their first stage, in the sale of the state's 17 percent share in Montedison to private interests. Then Italy's petrochemicals and plastics companies were shared out between Montedison and ENI's chemical subsidiary Enichem.
These two groups then set out to concentrate their efforts on polyesters and acrylics in the fibers area. The restructuring, carried out together with manpower cuts and unit shutdowns, made it possible for Montedison in and Enichem in to post operating profits after long years in the red. Enichem received a further boost from association with ICI in PVC and with BP and Hoechst in polyethylene, for it had emerged from the restructuring in a less favorable position than Montedison because it was still saddled with commodity chemicals.
Montedison, now 45 percent owned by the Ferruzzi sugar group, reinforced its strategic sectors by downloading Allied-Signal's fluorine polymers through its stake in Ausimont, by fully acquiring the Farmitalia and Carlo Erba pharmaceutical subsidiaries, and by downloading from Hercules its 50 percent share in Himont, the joint subsidiary set up in in polypropylene.
The two Italian giants were still very much in debt, a fact that could lead to further divestments. Their heavy chemical sectors were finally merged under Enimont in The Spanish chemical industry was also faced with considerable difficulties. Short of innovations, it had developed through foreign technologies and had lived a sheltered life behind customs barriers and import licenses not conducive to cost cuts.
Neither Spain's petrochemicals industry, which was in the hands of the Enpetrol state group and the private company CEPSA, nor the main national companies Explosivos de Rio Tinto ERT and Cros, were in a position to face without transition the pressure of competition felt when Spain joined the Common Market.
Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Handbook ATKINSON
This was particularly true of ERT, which had missed bankruptcy by a hair, and Cros, which had remained in the red for a long time. Neither would be able to avoid severe restructuring. Their total merger project failed through lack of financial means, and it was Kuwait in the end which, through the Kuwait Investment Office, took a 47 percent share in ERT and 24 percent in Cros in and promised to provide the necessary cash for the two groups to form a joint fertilizer subsidiary.
Kuwait's approach was, preferably, to acquire shares in existing companies. Qatar had chosen to associate with CdF Chimie to set up a petrochemical base in the Emirate and to build the Dunkirk site through Copenor. Saudi Arabia's policy has been to develop a national petrochemical industry that would sell its products worldwide.
More than Qatar and Kuwait, it had abundant supplies of ethane and methane extracted from gases that were being flared. The ethane separation capacities of its refineries alone accounted for a potential of 3.
Production would then be easier to place in Europe , North America, and Southeast Asia without wounding national feelings. The first giant methanol unit came on stream in , while the other Saudi production s located in Al Jubail and Yanbu have gradually begun supplying low- and highdensity polyethylene, ethylene glycol, ethanol, dichloroethane , vinyl chloride monomer and pvq, and styrene as the relevant units came on stream.
Since , Saudi Arabian Fertilizer has been producing urea and melamine in Dammam , in association with Sabic; the two companies have scheduled construction of a 1,tons-a-day ammonia unit in Al Jubail. Because of the obviously low cost of the principal local methane and ethane raw materials, and because the fixed costs of the installations are high with regard to variable costs, European petrochemical producers were afraid that Saudi Arabia with its low home consumption, would flood outside markets with its ethylene derivatives and methanol at cut prices.
So far, however, Saudi exports have not shaken up the market because they have been carefully channeled through the distribution networks of Sabic's international partner s. Taking a different course than Algeria with its liquefied natural gas, the Gulf States have thus upgraded their natural resources and already account for 10 percent , 5 percent, and 4 percent of world production of methanol, ethylene, and polyethylene respectively.
Just like their German and Swiss counterparts, US.
The shock waves sent out by the two oil crises, which had not spared the United States, the growing influence of financial analysts on the behavior of shares quoted on the Stock Exchange, and the arrival at the head of the large industrial groups of graduates from glamorous business schools trained more in finance than in technology gave the scene a new twist.
Shareholders were more interested in the instant profits they could draw from breaking up a group than with the added value that could be patiently built up through its development. Drawn along by their own convictions or under pressure from bankers and "raiders," US. The leveraged downloadout LBO system had already been applied by the leaders of FMC's American Viscose division when they sought to download, with the help of the banking world in the early s, the Avtex rayon and polyester producer, which thereby became a successful company.
Despite the risk to downloaders in borrowing from financial organizations as much as 90 percent of the amounts needed for the download, the system was eagerly seized upon by individuals wishing to set up their own business and taking advantage of the disenchanted mood of potential sellers.
This is how Huntsman became the world's leading producer of styrene and polystyrene after downloading up the relevant sectors from companies like Shell and Hoechst, which wanted to pull out of them. Cain Chemicals was itself to be taken over by Oxychem Occidental Petroleum in Various acquisitions made at the right moment turned Vista within three years into one of the leading PVC and detergent alcohol producers in the United States.
A further newcomer on the American scene was Aristech, which emerged through the takeover by its management of the heavy chemicals division of USX US. All these companies were acquired under very favorable conditions, as more often than not they were sold by the large groups at 25 percent of their replacement value. Contrary to assumed notions, individual entrepreneurs were thus able to acquire installations which until then only the most powerful groups could afford to run.
These groups gave up whole sections of their traditional chemicals to redeploy in specialties for which they had no particular disposition and, at times, in areas even further removed from their original areas of competence. Thus Diamond Shamrock gave up its chemicals to Occidental Petroleum at the worst possible time, to devote itself exclusively to the energy sector, which in fact failed to live up to expectations. One of the most powerful of America's chemical companies, Allied Chemical, became a high-technology conglomerate under the leadership of Edward L.
Hennessy, Jr. After acquiring Bendix and Signal, it took on the name of Allied-Signal and is now focusing on electronics and space, having entrusted a large part of its chemicals to the portfolio subsidiary Henley, which will sell them to the highest bidder.
As for Monsanto, it shed a number of fibers, plastics, and petrochemical units both in Europe and in the United States and decided to hinge its further development on biotechnologies, a new area for the group.
Wily businessmen acting as cals were also the victims of raiders in Icahn, UniRoyal was taken that issued high-risk and high-interest "junk over by its management and was forced to sell bonds" to finance a large share of the targeted off its chemicals to Avery, which in tum acquisitions, set their sights on large compa- placed them on the block, before accepting a nies quoted on the Stock Exchange: they acted leveraged downloadout by the management.
Phillips in the belief that the company's parts would be Petroleum had to download back its shares from C. Icahn and B. And what about Gulf Oil, which sold of the way the firms they were after were itself to Standard Oil of California to escape being managed was often not without truth. Attracted to the U.
To counter the raiders , the managers of the targeted firms investors had also joined the raiders' ranks. This was a comgroup's dismantling was unavoidable.
But their consequence of titanium dioxide. Goldsmith, unable prises concerned, when these did not disap- to take control of Goodyear, nevertheless pear altogether. The most spectacular case made substantial profits from his raid on the was Union Carbide, coveted in by the company. Goodyear was left with the sole real estate developer S. Hayman, who had alternative of withdrawing from all the sectors already taken over GAF Corporation.
To reduce such an unbearable debt, the group's management was forced agreement between the heads of companies to sell its best sectors batteries, consumer prod- that had stock options and were eager to make ucts, engineering plastics, agrochemicals and a profit, and the potential downloaders. This was even its headquarters in Danbury, Connecticut. Even these areas-industrial gases, both to the German downloader and to the sharepetrochemicals and plastics, and graphite elec- holders of the American group, at least for the trodes-were faced with stiff competition.
And time being. This was certainly not the best for industrial firms to make use of their funds. Other products act insidiously, so that it is harder to establish their effects on human and animal health and more generally on the environment.
Chemists have always been haunted by the Through the work carried on by Alfred Nobel, risks of explosion. The explosion which we know how to stabilize nitroglycerin in the occurred on September 3, , in the form of dynamite, and since methods Heleneborg laboratory near Stockholm, where have been devised to avoid the spontaneous Alfred Nobel was handling nitroglycerin, explosion of ammonium nitrate.
Ammonia caused the death of five persons, including units with capacities of 1, tons a day have Emile Nobel, his younger brother. The ammo- been operating for decades without incident. A great numcarrying 2, tons of ammonia nitrate, ber of drugs that today save many lives would exploded in Texas City, killing people.
Likewise, in industrial countries, increasa Nypro caprolactam pipe within the plant in , or again the one caused in a holiday ingly stringent regulations limit noxious camp in Los Alfraques in Spain when a tank- vapor discharge from chemical plants , which wagon carrying propylene exploded in , are required to treat their effluents effectively.
Such dle them strictly according to the prescribed precautions stem not only from the publicity security rules. Thalidomide, put on the But just as an air crash does not mean the market in by the German company end of commerical aviation, neither does the Chemie Gruenenthal, was indeed a powerful damage caused by improper use of certain sedative.
But it took three years to perceive substances mean the end of the chemical that when prescribed to pregnant women, it industry.
The image of chemicals is tarnished, dramatically crippled the newborn children. Citizens who deliberately risk their The synthetic intermediate for insecticides, own death, when they are not actually killing methyl isocyanate, which Union Carbide has others, because of speeding on the roads or used for years without incident in its West because they are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, Virginia Institute plant, caused over 2, or drugs, are less and less inclined, for all that, deaths when it escaped in from a storage to accept accidental security breaches when tank in Union Carbide's Bhopal plant in India.
The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident in the United States which resulted in no fatalities, the more recent Chernobyl explosion which, as of had directly caused two deaths, have, with no good reason, prevented any resumption of the U. The Seveso leak, which occurred in Italy on July 10, , in the trichlorophenol unit belonging to Hoffmann-La Roche's subsidiary Givaudan, did have an impact on the immediate environment and a number of people were temporarily affected by the dioxin vapors.
But the accident caused no lasting harm. It was the publicity which the media gave to it that forced Hoffmann-La Roche to close down the unit, turning Seveso into a dead city. The litigation over residues left in the ground by Occidental Petroleum's affiliate Hooker, in Love Canal, in the state of New York, led to the evacuation of all the area's residents, beginning in But no clear explanation has yet been given of the ailments some of the inhabitants have been complaining about.
The lack of universally accepted scientific explanations for certain phenomena has often meant that the precautionary measures taken by one country do not necessarily apply in another. Where sweeteners are concerned, for instance, some governments have banned saccharin and other governments allow its use. The same is true of cyclamates and aspartame.
DDT was banned as an insecticide as early as by most industrial nations. But it is still widely used in many developing countries. The risks of eutrophication are perceived differently by governments, so that legislation applying to products for the production of detergents, like alkylbenzene sulfonate.
Thus while it is understandable that authorities must be careful to soothe the fears of a public that is insufficiently informed of the dangers that threaten it, it must also be aware of the economic and social costs of refusing to accept the risks inherent in any human activity, and also conscious of the uncertainties surrounding the rules and regulations taken to satisfy its demands.
Some companies are turning the necessity of cleaning up the environment into new opportunities to improve their profitability. Thus Du Pont has found a useful application as a building material for the calcium sulfate that was piling up as a by-product in one of its Texas plants. Process Improvement Higher crude oil prices had revived studies in the use of coal as a chemical feedstock.
But while the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was still used in South Africa by Sasol, the only other industrial gasification unit was the one Eastman Kodak brought on stream in Kingsport, Tennessee, in , to produce coalbased acetic anhydride. The coal came from the Appalachian mountains and was cheap enough relative to oil prices at the time to warrant such an installation, and the plant is now to be expanded.
Half the world production of p-xylene and a still further improved, such as the electrolysis quarter of the production of ethylbenzene, an of sodium chloride, dating back to the last intermediate required to prepare styrene, are century: diaphragm and then membrane cells carried out using the zeolite-based ZSM-5 were substituted for mercury cells, which catalysts developed by Mobil Oil, which were a possible source of pollution.
Important progress was also made in chemplayed a pioneer role in this area. Applications of the olefin metathesis ical engineering , such as use of rotary comreversible chemical reaction, discovered by pressors in ammonia synthesis or ICI's Phillips Petroleum in the s, were also fermentation reactors in Billingham to prodeveloped in the subsequent years. By this duce the Pruteen protein from methanol reacreaction, Arco produces propylene from ethyl- tors, having no mobile parts. The application of electrochemistry in , new materials put on the market in the organic synthesis had already served to bring s were the outcome of research in high on stream in the United States in polymers essentially conducted within industry.
Monsanto 's first industrial adiponitrile It was through such research that ICI's process from acrylonitrile. This was followed PEEK polyether ether ketone , one of the in by a similar installation in Seal first high-performance aromatic polymers , Sands, England, which was later bought up was put on sale, as well as Du Pont's aramide by BASE fibers Nomex and Kevlar, more resistant than The former Reppe chemistry, still practiced steel in like volume.
This diol, now also Electric's polyethers, the PPO polyphenyobtained from maleic anhydride, is used to lene oxide produced through polymerizaproduce PBT polyesters through reaction with tion of 2,6-xylenol and the Noryl plastic terephthalic acid and leads to other major produced by blending PPO with polystyrene. New synthetic processes for the preparation added to this range: polyarylates, polysulof established products were also industrially fones, polyetherimides.
States the production of propylene oxide Under a process that consisted in copolymerthrough direct oxidation of propylene operat- izing in the existing highpressure installation ing jointly with styrene production, developed ethylene with 5 to 10 percent of an a-olefin by Ralph Landau and used in the Oxirane sub- butene-l , hexene-l , a stronger linear lowsidiary with Arco, which the latter fully took density polyethylene LLOPE was produced over in ; in Germany and Switzerland, the with a higher melting point than LOPE.
Their higher linear o-olefins were also used either for polyalphaolefins PAO intended for synthetic lubricants or to prepare detergent alcohols. While no great new plastic has emerged over the last fifteen years, researchers in major chemical companies did their utmost to improve both the features and the performance of known polymers.
But also through additives they managed to render polymers more resistant to fire, to oxidation, and to alteration through ultraviolet rays. This slowly gave rise to a new industry that consisted in supplying polymer producers and plastic processors, not only pigments and charges, but also antioxidants , light stabilizers, and fireproofing agents.In , this was from excise duties on alcohol if methanol was how Upjohn researchers in the United States added to it.
Key Features The book is of interest to a wide audience because it includes the necessary background for understanding how a technology works.
Companies were to suffer greatly from an error ofjudgment, building new plants at great expense at the same time that economic growth rates tumbled from over 10 percent to a mere 2 to 3 percent. The views of the European Economic Community Commission in Brussels had to be taken into account , and they upheld the principle of free competition as set down in article 85 of the Rome Treaty.
The first aimed for a linear reduction of existing capacities; the second and more important one allowed each producer to specialize in those areas where it held the best cards, giving up what amounted to marginal productions. A happy blend of text and data, this chapter deals with metabolic activity and the factors which control it.
The hardest cases were those of petroch emicals and thermoplastics. In addition to these administrative obstacles, there is uncertainty over patent rights, for there are no legal precedents.