CBSE Physics Practical Class 11 Lab Manual prepared by Physics Experts at to score good marks in the CBSE Class 11 Physics Practical. Science laboratory Manuals. Class I to VIII; Class VI to VIII; Class IX; Class X; Class IX & X; Class XI; Class XII. Mathematics. Activities for I to V(1 - 16) · Activities. download Saraswati Lab Manual Physics Class-XI by Dr. R. K. Gupta PDF Online. This is a comprehensive guide for lab manual in the subject of Physics.

Comprehensive Physics Lab Manual Class 11 Pdf

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Ch: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter Laboratory Manual. PHYSICS Class XI. FOREWORD The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body concerning all. a comprehensive study, we found that our curriculum is more functional related to NIOS Physics curriculum at Senior Secondary stage is designed to encourage read the instructions given in the laboratory manual carefully and recored the To compare the frequencies of two tuning forks by finding first and second.

In this horizontal row under the column headed by 8. Now is the figure of which. Find the antilog of 2.

Class 11 Physics Lab Manual Work NCERT

Example 1: Find the number whose logarithm is 1. Properties of logarithms: The first two figures from the left are For this purpose.

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As the characteristic is 2. Adding 12 to we get Angles are given usually in degrees and minutes. Pages — Add 10 to the last digits of 0. You will stop at 0. If two physical quantities a and b are such that a change made by us in a results in a change in b. Scan horizontally. You may proceed as follows: Here length is independent variable while time period is dependent variable.

It also helps us to visualise experimental data at a glance and shows the relation between the two quantities. Use scientific representations of the numbers. Write also the units of the quantity plotted. Represent the independent variable along the x-axis and the dependent variable along the y-axis.

But such a choice is to be adopted generally when the relation between variables begins from zero or it is desired to find the zero position of one of the variables.

For plotting a graph. Many times. Also indicate the scales taken along both the axes on the graph paper. Write the numbers at every fifth cm of the axis. It is. The scale conversion may also be written at the right or left corner at the top of the graph paper. On each axis mark only the values of the variable in round numbers. In case.

The observations must be covering all available range evenly. Now a days computers are also used for plotting graphs of a given data. The size of the spread of plotted point must be in accordance with the accuracy of the data. Some other representations used which give the same meaning as above are.

If the circle radius is large. The central dot is the value of measured data. Take more readings in those regions. This is indicated in Fig. You can design many more on your own. Then try to guess where there will be sharp changes in the curvature of the curve. Time should not be wasted in taking a very large number of observations.

Further such a representation tells that accuracy along x. The corresponding interval of the variable on y-segment is then measured and the slope is calculated. The values of the slope and the intercepts. It is because the value of y changes by the same amount for a given change in the value of x. Slope is fixed for a given straight line While calculating the slope.

This is illustrated in Fig. Tangent at a point A Therefore. Often straight-line graphs expected to pass through the origin are found to give some intercepts. As shown in Fig. Also keep in mind that slope of a graph has physical significance. The slope of the curve at a particular point. In order to draw the tangent to a given curve at a given point. The objective of the experiment and procedure to be followed should be clear before actually performing the experiment.

Next using a protractor. To avoid any damage. Any accidental damage or breakage of the apparatus should be immediately brought to the notice of the concerned teacher. The students should thoroughly understand the principle of the experiment.

The slope of the tangent GAH i. Drawing tangent at point A using a plane mirror DA.


The above procedure may be followed for finding the slope of any curve at any given point.. The apparatus should be arranged in proper order. GAH is the line. Wherever possible. Always mention the result in proper SI unit. The degree of accuracy of the measurement of each quantity should always be kept in mind.

Recording in tabular form is essential in most of the experiments. The student must bear in mind the proper plan for recording the observations. Precautions meant for each experiment should be observed strictly while performing it. The following heads may usually be followed for preparing the report: The result obtained should be suitably rounded off.

Calculations should be neatly shown using log tables wherever desired. Repeat every observation. Mention clearly. Also mention the physical conditions like temperature.. Calculate experimental error. Also mention any special inferences which you can draw from your observations or special difficulties faced during the experimentation.

These may also include points for making the experiment more accurate for observing precautions and. A and C. The sliding Vernier scale has jaws B. The zero of main scale and Vernier scale coincide when the jaws are made to touch each other. The least count of a common scale is 1mm. A Vernier Calliper has two scales—one main scale and a Vernier scale. Screw S is used to fix the vernier scale at a desired position. Knob P is used to slide the vernier scale on the main scale.

A vernier scale enables this to be achieved. It has two fixed jaws. Spherical body. The main scale and Vernier scale are divided into small divisions though of different magnitudes. D projecting at right angles to it and also the main scale and a metallic strip N.

Physics Practical Class 11 Lab Manual

It is difficult to further subdivide it to improve the least count of the scale. The main scale is graduated in cm and mm.

Carefully note the position of the zero mark of the vernier scale against the main scale. It must perfectly coincide with that of the vernier scale. The jaws should be perfectly perpendicular to the diameter of the body. Observe the zero mark of the main scale. D' is its internal diameter and r is its internal radius. Position your eye directly over the division mark so as to avoid any parallax error. Use a magnifying glass. Gently loosen the screw to release the movable jaw. Keep the jaws of Vernier Callipers closed.

Look for the division on the vernier scale that coincides with a division of main scale. If this is not so. Find out the arithmetic mean of readings taken for length. Record the main scale division just to the left of the zero mark of the vernier scale. Apply zero corrections wherever necessary. Measure the length of the rectangular block if beyond the limits of the extended jaws of Vernier Callipers using a suitable ruler.

Record the observations for length. Record the observations in the tabular form [Table E 1. Take three sets of reading in each case.

Find the arithmetic mean of the corrected readings of the diameter of the body. Repeat steps to obtain the diameter of the body at different positions on its curved surface. Note its number say N. Apply zero correction. Express the results in suitable units with appropriate number of significant figures. Repeat steps stated in a to determine the other dimensions breadth b and height h by holding the rectangular block in proper positions.

Otherwise repeat steps described in a after holding the block lengthwise between the jaws of the Vernier Callipers. Start looking for exact coincidence of a vernier scale division with that of a main scale division in the vernier window from left end zero to the right. Ensure that the product is converted into proper units usually cm for addition to be valid. Tighten the screw gently to keep the Vernier Callipers in this position. Do this for two different angular positions of the beaker.

Multiply 'N' by least count of the instrument and add the product to the main scale reading noted in step 4. Adjust the upper jaws CD of the Vernier Callipers so as to touch the wall of the beaker from inside without exerting undue pressure on it. Keep the edge of the main scale of Vernier Callipers. Express the result in suitable units and proper significant figures. If it is not so. Repeat steps 4 to 6 of part a of the experiment to obtain depth of the given beaker.

Keep sliding the moving jaw of the Vernier Callipers until the strip just touches the bottom of the beaker. This should be done in such a way that the tip of the strip is able to go freely inside the beaker along its depth. Take the readings for depth at different positions of the breaker. Record the observations in tabular form [Table E 1.

Zero error may be Take care that it does so while being perfectly perpendicular to the bottom surface. Now tighten the screw of the Vernier Callipers. Find out the mean of the corrected readings of the internal diameter and depth of the given beaker.

Apply zero corrections. From the figure. From this figure. In this situation. In ideal case. For any measurements done.

Zero error i no zero error ii positive zero error iii negative zero error positive or negative. But in Fig. This situation makes it obvious that while taking measurements. In Fig. This is shown by the Fig. N Vernier scale reading. Main Scale No. Main Scale Number of No. N Ver nier scale reading Measuring dimensions of a given regular body rectangular block Dimension S Main Scale Number of No If the vernier scale is not sliding smoothly over the main scale.

Screw the vernier tightly without exerting undue pressure to avoid any damage to the threads of the screw. It is meaningless to use it where precision in measurement is not going to affect the result much. A Vernier Callipers is necessary and suitable only for certain types of measurement where the required dimension of the object is freely accessible. Keep the eye directly over the division mark to avoid any error due to parallax. Note down each observation with correct significant figures and units.

How does a vernier decrease the least count of a scale. It cannot be used in many situations. One can undertake an exercise to know the level of skills developed in making measurements using Vernier Callipers. If the diameter d is small. Measure outer diameter of a water pipe. In the vernier scale nor mally used in a Fortin's barometer. How would the precision of the measurement by Vernier Callipers be affected by increasing the number of divisions on its vernier scale?

Measure thickness of doors and boards. Measure the diameter D and find the circumference of the cylinder using a thread. Find the least count of the vernier. How can you find the thickness of the sheet used for making of a steel tumbler using Ver nier Callipers?

Measure the internal diameter D i and external diameter Do of the tumbler. Using the Ver nier Callipers. View of a screw gauge. There is a linear Fig. The distance advanced by the screw when it makes its one complete rotation is the separation between two consecutive threads.

There are threads on a screw. The separation between any two consecutive threads is the same. It is usually 1 mm or 0. You might have observed an ordinary screw [Fig E2. The screw can be moved backward or forward in its nut by rotating it antiFig.

This distance is called the Pitch of the screw. As such a Screw Gauge is an instrument of higher precision than a Vernier Callipers. More accurate measurement of length. In case this is not so. When the end B of the screw touches the surface A of the stud ST. The smallest division on the linear scale is 1 mm in one type of screw gauge. There are divisions on the circular scale. Showing a positive zero error Fig. There is a circular scale CS on the head.

Measuring thickness with a screw guage 34 The division of circular scale which coincides with the main scale line is the reading of circular scale. When the reading of the circular scale across the linear scale is less than zero or negative.

A screw gauge with no zero error When the reading on the circular scale across the linear scale is more than zero or positive. The least count of this screw gauge is 0. In another type of screw gauge. If there are n divisions on the circular scale. Rotate the screw through. It is called the least count of the instrument. Some screw gauge have a least count of 0. The linear distance moved by the screw when it is rotated by one division of the circular scale.

Note that here two rotations of the circular scale make the screw to advance through a distance of 1 mm. This distance is the reading on the linear scale marked by the edge of the circular scale.

Take the screw gauge and make sure that the rachet R on the head of the screw functions properly. Take the mean of the different values of diameter so obtained..

Record the reading for diameter d2 in this position [Fig. Least Count L. The wire may not be truly cylindrical. For this. The wire may not have an exactly circular cross-section.. Stop rotating the rachet the moment you hear a click sound.. Take the readings on the linear scale and the circular scale. Two magnified views a and b of a wire showing its perpendicular diameters d1 and d2. From these two readings. Move the screw forward by rotating the rachet till the wire is gently gripped between the screw and the stud as shown in Fig.

Insert the given wire between the screw and the stud of the screw gauge. Substract zero error. Reading should be taken atleast at four different points along the length of the wire.

The wire may not be of uniform cross-section. Screw should move freely without friction. Rachet arrangement in screw gauge must be utilised to avoid undue pressure on the wire as this may change the diameter.

View all the reading keeping the eye perpendicular to the scale to avoid error due to parallax. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be completely eliminated.

Measurement of the diameter of the wire S. The divisions on the linear scale and the circular scale may not be evenly spaced. Measure the diameters of petioles stem which holds the leaf of different leaf and check if it has any relation with the mass or surface area of the leaf.

In instruments having backlash error. Why does a screw gauge develop backlash error with use? There may be an error by a factor of 10 or Is the screw gauge with smaller least count always better? If you are given two screw gauges. The play in the threads may introduce an error in measurement in devices like screw gauge.

Is it possible that the zero of circular scale lies above the zero line of main scale. You can obtain a very rough estimation of the diameter of the wire by measuring its thickness with an ordinary metre scale.

As a result a gap develops between these two threads. For measurement of small lengths. Is there a situation in which the linear distance moved by the screw is not proportional to the rotation given to it? Let the petiole dry before measuring its diameter by screw gauge.

To prevent this. Try to assess if the value of diameter obtained by you is realistic or not. In what ways are the two different?

This error is called backlash error. Are they made as per some standard? Measure the thickness of the sheet of stainless steel glasses of various make and relate it to their price structure.. Insert the given sheet between the studs of the screw gauge and determine the thickness at five different positions.. Find out various uses of wires of each gauge number.

Collect from the market. Measure the thickness of different glass bangles available in the Market. Find the average thickness and calculate the correct thickness by applying zero error following the steps followed earlier. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be eliminated completely.

Assess whether the thickness of sheet measured by you is realistic or not. You may take a pile of say 20 sheets, and find its thickness using a metre scale and then calculate the thickness of one sheet. What are the limitations of the screw gauge if it is used to measure the thickness of a thick cardboard sheet?

Find out the thickness of different wood ply boards available in the market and verify them with the specifications provided by the supplier. Measure the thickness of the steel sheets used in steel almirahs manufactured by different suppliers and compare their prices. Is it better to pay for a steel almirah by mass or by the guage of steel sheets used? Hold 30 pages of your practical notebook between the screw and the stud and measure its thickness to find the thickness of one sheet.

Find the thickness of lamina as in Experiment E 2 b. Place the irregular lamina on a sheet of paper with mm graph. Draw the outline of the lamina using a sharp pencil. Count the total number of squares and also more than half squares within the boundary of the lamina and determine the area of the lamina. The first section of the table is now for readings of thickness at five different places along the edge of the.

Calculate the mean thickness and make correction for zero error, if any. From the outline drawn on the graph paper: Total number of complete squares. A spherometer consists of a metallic triangular frame F supported on three legs of equal length A, B and C Fig.

The lower tips of the legs form three corners of an equilateral triangle ABC and lie on the periphery of a base circle of known radius, r. The spherometer also consists of a central leg OS an accurately cut screw , which can be raised or lowered through a threaded hole V nut at the centre of the frame F.

Physics Practical Class 11 Lab Manual

The lower tip of the central screw, when lowered to the plane formed by the tips of legs A, B and C touches the centre of triangle ABC. The central screw also carries a circular disc D at its top having a circular scale divided into or equal parts. A small vertical scale P marked in millimetres or half-millimetres, called main scale is also fixed parallel to the central screw, at one end of the frame F.

This scale P is kept very close to the rim of disc D but it does not touch the disc D. This scale reads the vertical distance which the central leg moves through Fig.

A spherometer the hole V. This scale is also known as pitch scale. It is the vertical distance moved by the central screw in one complete rotation of the circular disc scale. Commonly used spherometers in school laboratories have graduations in millimetres on pitch scale and may have equal divisions on circular disc scale. In one rotation of the circular scale, the central screw advances or recedes by 1 mm. Thus, the pitch of the screw is 1 mm.

Least Count: Least count of a spherometer is the distance moved by the spherometer screw when it is turned through one division on the circular scale, i. The least count of commonly used spherometers is 0. However, some spherometers have least count as small as 0. Points A and B are the positions of the two spherometer legs on the given spherical surface.

The position of the third spherometer leg is not shown in Fig. The point O is the point of contact of the tip of central screw with the spherical surface. From this figure, it can be noted that the point M is not only the mid point of line AB but it is the centre of base circle and centre of the equilateral triangle ABC formed by the lower tips of the legs of the spherometer Fig.

Measurement of radius Fig. The base circle of the spherometer of curvature of a spheriscrew above the plane cal surface of the circular section ABC when its lower. This distance OM is also called sagitta. Let this be h. It is known that if two chords of a circle, such as AB and OZ, intersect at a point M then the areas of the rectangles described by the two parts of chords are equal. Then AM. Now, let l be the distance between any two legs of the spherometer or the side of the equilateral triangle ABC Fig.

Note the value of one division on pitch scale of the given spherometer. Note the number of divisions on circular scale. Determine the pitch and least count L. Place the given flat glass plate on a horizontal plane and keep the spherometer on it so that its three legs rest on the plate. Place the spherometer on a sheet of paper or on a page in practical note book and press it lightly and take the impressions of the tips of its three legs.

Calculate the mean distance between two spherometer legs, l. In the determination of radius of curvature R of the given spherical surface, the term l 2 is used see formula used. Therefore, great care must be taken in the measurement of length, l. Remove the spherical surface and place the spherometer on plane glass plate. Record the readings in Table E 3. Find the mean value of h.. Measurement of sagitta h 8. Also read the divisions of the circular scale that is in line with the pitch scale.

Class XI XII Laboratory Manual Solution

Rotate the central screw till it gently touches the spherical surface Take the spherometer reading h 2 and record it in Table E 3. Take the spherometer reading h 1 by taking the reading of the pitch scale. Repeat steps 5 to 8 three more times by rotating the spherical surface leaving its centre undisturbed. Turn the central screw till its tip gently touches the glass plate. Pitch of the screw: The difference between h 1 and h 2 is equal to the value of sagitta h..

Place the given spherical surface on the plane glass plate and then place the spherometer on it by raising or lowering the central screw sufficiently upwards or downwards so that the three spherometer legs may rest on the spherical surface Fig. To be sure that the screw touches the surface one can observe its image formed due to reflection from the surface beneath it. Using the values of l and h. Non-uniformity of the divisions in the circular scale. The screw may have friction.

Backlash error of the spherometer. Does the thickness of the material of object make any difference? Parallax error while reading the pitch scale corresponding to the level of the circular scale. Spherometer may have backlash error. While setting the spherometer. The third screw W3. This beam balance works on the principle of moments.

A beam balance and set of weights near the end of the beam B. The pans P1 and P2 are suspended through stirrups S1 and S2 respectively. The most commonly used two-pan beam balance is an application of a lever. W2 and W3. At this pivotal point. Like a common beam balance. For high precision measurements. When the balance is in use. It consists of a rigid uniform bar beam. The very process of measurement brings in some uncertainties in the measured value.

As such the value of a physical quantity obtained from some experiments may be different from its standard or true value.

Since a0, the true value, is mostly not known and hence it is not possible to determine the error e in absolute terms. However, it is possible to estimate the likely magnitude of e. The estimated value of error is termed as experimental error. The error can be due to least count of the measuring instrument or a mathematical relation involving least count as well as the variable.

The quality of an experiment is determined from the experimental uncertainty of the result. Smaller the magnitude of uncertainty, closer is the experimentally measured value to the true value.

Accuracy is a measure of closeness of the measured value to the true value. On the other hand, if a physical quantity is measured repeatedly during the same experiment again and again, the values so obtained may be different from each other. Experiment 6: To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.

Experiment 7: To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph between force and sin?. Activities To make a paper scale of given least count, e. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.

To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane using a double inclined plane. Section-B Experiments Experiment 1: To determine Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.

To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting graph between load and extension.To determine Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. Accuracy is a measure of closeness of the measured value to the true value. But such a choice is to be adopted generally when the relation between variables begins from zero or it is desired to find the zero position of one of the variables. Do this for two different angular positions of the beaker.

The distance through which the screw has to be moved gives the relative displacement between the two frames. When the pans are empty. What is the effect of not locating the point of no-friction accurately? Some points may not lie on the straightline graph and may be on either side of it. Recording in tabular form is essential in most of the experiments. It may be recalled that NCER T brought out laboratory manual in physics for senior secondary classes earlier in

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