Books Advanced Search New Releases & Pre-orders Best Sellers Browse Genres Children's & Young Adult Textbooks Exam Central All Indian Languages. Concrete Technology (Hindi) Paperback – by computerescue.info (Author), Vikram Singh (Author). computerescue.info - download Concrete Technology (Hindi), 1/e book online at best prices in india on computerescue.info Read Concrete Technology (Hindi), 1/e book reviews. In this course, Neeraj will cover all the topics from concrete Technology and BMC for GATE and SSC JE EXAMINATION, the course will also cover previous years question of SSC JE ( ) with the explanation. Cement Important Points (in Hindi) (Hindi) Practice Questions Part 1.
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In this course I discussed about overview of my course. Concrete Technology (Hindi) PB Books- download Concrete Technology (Hindi) PB Books online at lowest price with Rating & Reviews, Free Shipping*, COD. Engineering Books in Hindi Language. Reinforced Concrete र Overseers Duties and र Concrete Technology. र Hydraulics and Hydra र
They are used in product ion of heavy concret es for nuclear and radioact ive shielding and include magnet ite, barit es Barium Sulphat e , iron ore and st eel punching. Their specific gravit ies are great er t han 4. Aggregat es can also be crushed or uncrushed depending on how they are produced. Uncrushed aggregat es are reduced to it s present size by nat ural agent s while crushed aggregat es are obt ained by a deliberat e fragment at ion breaking of rock.
Depending on the part icle sizes, aggregat es are divided into t wo classes: Fine aggregat es Coarse aggregat es 2. Most commonly used fine aggregat es are sand, crushed stone, ash and surkhi. Sand Julius Ngabirano Page 6 It consist s of small grains of silica and is formed by disint egrat ion of rocks caused by weat her.
There are different t ypes of sand: i. The grains are generally sharp and if angular and free from organic matt er and clay, it is extremely good for use in mort ar and concret e. River sand: It is obt ained from the banks and beds of the rivers and may be fine or coarse. Sea sand: It consist s of fine rounded grains of brown colour and is collect ed from sea beach.
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It usually cont ains salt s and t herefore should be thoroughly washed to remove the salt s. Crushed st one It is obt ained from crushing wast e stone from quarries t o the part icle size of sand. When crushed from good qualit y st one, it produces an excellent fine aggregat e.
Surkhi This is obt ained from powdered broken brick burnt brick. It is commonly used in t he preparat ion of lime mort ar. St one ballast St ones t hat are free from undesirable mineral constit uent s and are not soft or laminat ed are broken and screened t o have st one ballast for use in concret e.
Brick ballast Where aggregat es from nat ural resources are eit her not available or expensive, broken brick are used as a coarse aggregat e in lime concret e. Only well burnt good bricks should be used.
Gravel and shingle These are obt ained from river beds, quarries and sea shores. Being hard and durable, t hese are ext ensively used in t he preparat ion of concret e.
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Generally, aggregat es occupy a large percent age of concret e and are less cost ly t han cement. Julius Ngabirano Page 7 2. Cleanliness: impurit ies such as dust , clay, organic matt er prevent proper bonding bet ween cement past e and aggregat es. This would affect the strengt h of concret e.
In case of dust , aggregat es should be washed before use. Aggregat es should be hard and tough to resist forces of abrasion, impact , crushing, etc.
Usually st rong aggregat es make st rong concret e. Aggregat es should be durable iv. They should not be liable to any form of shrinkage, swelling and decomposition.
Aggregat es should be sound and thus t hey should not be thin and elongat ed to avoid breakages.
Aggregat es should be inert, t hey should not react t o wat er component in cement so as not to t ake part in t he hydrat ion process vii. They should have a rough surface and a regular shape t o promot e bonding viii. For dependable result s, t he coefficient of expansion and thermal conductivity of aggregat es should be equal or nearly equal to that of cement 2. Under favorable condit ions, at least 10 proport ions should be drawn from different part s of the st ock pile.
And all t hese port ions should be combined t o form t he main sample to be sent t o t he laborat ory for t est ing. Mix the main sample t horoughly and in the case of fine aggregat es, dampened them t o avoid segregat ion.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension. Laid in the shape of arches , vaults and domes , it quickly hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick.
First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice, often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon.
After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the midth century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used. From the 14th century to the midth century, the use of cement gradually returned. The Canal du Midi was built using concrete in This third Eddystone Lighthouse pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate.
His son William continued developments into the s, earning him recognition for the development of "modern" Portland cement.
The first concrete reinforced bridge was designed and built by Joseph Monier in The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans , and concrete was widely used in the Roman Empire. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.
Composition[ edit ] Concrete is a composite material, comprising a matrix of aggregate typically a rocky material and a binder typically Portland cement or asphalt , which holds the matrix together. Many types of concrete are available, determined by the formulations of binders and the types of aggregate used to suit the application for the material. These variables determine strength, density, as well as chemical and thermal resistance of the finished product.
Aggregate consists of large chunks of material in a concrete mix, generally a coarse gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone , or granite , along with finer materials such as sand.
A cement , most commonly Portland cement, is the most prevalent kind of concrete binder. For cementitious binders, water is mixed with the dry powder and aggregate, which produces a semi-liquid slurry that can be shaped, typically by pouring it into a form. The concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, creating a robust stone-like material.
Other cementitious materials, such as fly ash and slag cement , are sometimes added — either pre-blended with the cement or directly as a concrete component — and become a part of the binder for the aggregate. Admixtures are added to modify the cure rate or properties of the material.
Mineral admixtures use recycled materials as concrete ingredients.
Conspicuous materials include fly ash , a by-product of coal-fired power plants ; ground granulated blast furnace slag , a byproduct of steelmaking ; and silica fume , a byproduct of industrial electric arc furnaces. Structures employing Portland cement concrete usually include steel reinforcement. Such concrete can be formulated with high compressive strength , but always has lower tensile strength.
Therefore, it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension, typically steel rebar. Other materials can also be used as a concrete binder, the most prevalent alternative is asphalt , which is used as the binder in asphalt concrete.
The mix design depends on the type of structure being built, how the concrete is mixed and delivered, and how it is placed to form the structure.
Main article: Cement Several tons of bagged cement, about two minutes of output from a 10, ton per day cement kiln Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and many plasters.
British masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in It was named because of the similarity of its color to Portland limestone , quarried from the English Isle of Portland and used extensively in London architecture.
It consists of a mixture of calcium silicates alite , belite , aluminates and ferrites — compounds which combine calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron in forms which will react with water. Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone a source of calcium with clay or shale a source of silicon, aluminum and iron and grinding this product called clinker with a source of sulfate most commonly gypsum.
In modern cement kilns many advanced features are used to lower the fuel consumption per ton of clinker produced.
Concrete Technology (Hindi)
Cement kilns are extremely large, complex, and inherently dusty industrial installations, and have emissions which must be controlled. Of the various ingredients used to produce a given quantity of concrete, the cement is the most energetically expensive. Even complex and efficient kilns require 3. Many kilns can be fueled with difficult-to-dispose-of wastes, the most common being used tires. The extremely high temperatures and long periods of time at those temperatures allows cement kilns to efficiently and completely burn even difficult-to-use fuels.Its widespread use in many Roman structures , a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman architectural revolution , freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
They kept the cisterns secret as these enabled the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert. Nat ural aggregat es include barit e, iron ore et c.
The advent of t hese aggregates has been att ribut ed by the growing short age of nat urally-occurring aggregat es in some count ries like UK.
However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail.
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