Online + PDF exercises (worksheets) with answers and grammar rules. Direct - indirect (reported) speech: He is ill. - I knew he was ill. Download here reported speech rules in pdf for your easy study. You may also print it. The file contains direct and indirect speech rules for. direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech. Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech).
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DIRECT · INDIRECT SPEECH. A. Put the following into Indirect speech: 1. Mr West said, "I am very tired". 2. He said, "I am flying to Rome tomorrow",. 3. George . gate children's deictic changes (signalling direct or indirect speech), use of speech act verbs, and preference for reporting system in their retold narratives. Direct and indirect speech: an overview of the rules computerescue.info When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses in the direct.
The teacher shouted, You are making noise! Lucy says, She is eating my cookies.
If the intro verb is in the past tense then the tense of the speech must move back one stage in terms of tense AND adverbs of time and place change too. Also include verbs like shall and must.
The teacher orders the children to keep quiet. The teacher orders that the children must be quiet. However, they should still be expressed.
Direct and indirect speech pdf
To do so they must be described. I ve stumped my toe! Becomes: The girl screams in pain that she has stumped her toe.
Phuti asked Calvin, Do you believe in ghosts? Michael has a doctor s appointment today, said Thandi. We had practice yesterday, said Margot, in the rain. Amy, where were you yesterday? Mangi said, Tomorrow I shall explore the wilderness. He said that he had to wash the dog the following day.
She explained that she had been at the seaside.
Direct And Indirect Speech Exercise.pdf - Direct And
If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following: Notes 1. I shall, we shall usually become would.
I should, we should usually change into would. May becomes might. We have to change the pronouns to keep the same meaning of a sentence. Sometimes we have to use a noun instead of a pronoun, otherwise the new sentence is confusing.
If we only make mechanical changes Kevin said he had killed them , the new sentence can have a different meaning - Kevin himself killed them.
This and these are usually substituted. Let's suppose that we talked to our friend Mary on Friday. And she said: If we report Mary's sentence on Sunday, we have to do the following: If we say: Mary said Greg had come yesterday , it is not correct, because it means that he came on Saturday.
The time expressions change as follows.
Note If something is said and reported at the same time, the time expressions can remain the same. On the other hand, if something is reported later, the time expressions are different in the indirect speech.
Last week Jim said: Jim said he was playing this week. Here usually becomes there. But sometimes we make different adjustments.
At school: In Baker Street: Direct questions become reported questions with the same word order as statements. The reporting verb say changes into ask, want to know, wonder If is more common and whether is more formal. The commands, requests and advice mostly have the same form in English: In the direct speech we do not mention the person in the imperative.
In the indirect speech the person addressed must be mentioned.
Tell can introduce statements, commands, requests or advice. The form is different, however.
Statements with tell "I'm leaving," he told me. Commands, requests or advice with tell "Leave the room," he told John. Similarly ask is used in reported questions, commands, requests or advice in different forms.
Questions with ask "Will you make coffee? Commands, requests or advice with ask "Make coffee, please," he said. Gerunds and infinitives If-conditional Time clauses Relative clauses Direct indirect object Indirect questions Reported speech. What you can find on this page: PDF grammar rules: Present - past "I never understand you," she told me.Newspaper headlines We often use the present simple in newspaper headlines. After wish, would rather, had better, it is time.
He asked me if [S] [V]I had come by train or by bus. This and these are usually substituted.
NB: Check for commas, inverted commas, capital letters and end punctuation! Tip 8: Change of Place and Time Words expressing nearness in time or place in Direct Speech are generally changed into words expressing distance in Indirect Speech.
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