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eBook (PDF): Publication Date: December ; Copyright year: ; ISBN Glass constructions in detail – all mounting methods are systematically depicted the completely revised Glass Construction Manual presents the current state of . The Glass Construction Manual shows the wide range of applications for glass in architecture. It provides the basic technical principles for building with this. Glass Construction Manual (Construction Manuals (englisch)) [Christian Schittich ] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In compact and.

Reproduction of any part of this work in individual cases, too, is only permitted within the limits of the provisions of the valid edition of the copyright law. A charge will be levied. Infringements will be subject to the penalty clauses of the copyright law.

Copy-editing English edition: Roswitha Siegler, Simone Soesters.

All drawings in this book were made specifically by the publisher. No legal claims can be derived from the contents of this book.

There is now an increasing focus once more on facades due to the growing importance taken on by exterior walls in the context of energy consumption issues and options for making use of environmental energy.

The booming Asian megacities show this quite clearly. Aspects that apply generally to the exterior walls of buildings, involving demands made on them, their principal functionality and structural design, have been separated from descriptions of the special features of individual cases.

The book represents more than just a collection of different buildings in various locations and contexts, of different types and technologies. Rather, specific features have been classified and described based on the various materials used in their walls or cladding. Buildings face very different local climatic conditions, depending on the region in which they are located.

Out of this confrontation arise the functional demands on an exterior wall. Various interdependencies exist or must be defined so that each structural system can be geometrically coordinated in the space. Dimensional and modular conditions and proportions must be defined for the building as a whole to be developed.

Combining these aspects results in the parameters for material implementation based on the materials and construction methods to be chosen. If the materials and technologies used to manufacture them are important in defining further specific features, then certain physical, material, installation-related and aesthetic details must also be coordinated. Here the chapters have been kept separate from examples and precede them. Stone, ceramics and metal, for example, are so significant that whole cultural eras have been named after them.

This is now a frequent feature of modern structures made of almost all materials, so structures made of specific materials and special facade construction topics are dealt with in separate chapters. Planners often simply follow fashionable trends instead of making good use of the main advantages of such structures.

Basic errors are often made because there is not enough awareness of structural and energy technology interconnections or of individual variants available for possible use in construction. The integration of directly and indirectly operating solar systems in building envelopes is still uncharted territory for many and successful combinations of practical value, technicalphysical function, design and construction solutions are still the exception rather than the rule, even though the first pioneering applications were implemented decades ago.

Munich, spring Thomas Herzog. New to this edition are three sections that do not deal mainly with specific materials but cover issues that have become increasingly important and need to be examined separately. It was therefore natural to develop a separate third section of the book covering these six areas. The authors would like to thank all the people, institutions, architects, photographers and companies that have supported our work with their skilful contributions and everyone who worked on the new edition.

Sep t eSpeetpt. SSeS ptp.. Oct O. OO O ccttcc.. N NN ovo. N Doevco.. D D e e DeDcce.. Summer Summer Summer Summer Summer 0 6 04 4 6 Supplementary direct-acting measures can support such functions on both sides of the facade.

External conditions: The sun is one of the most central and essential of all site-specific external conditions. It is our greatest direct and indirect energy source and makes all life possible. Among the main factors influencing these demands that are connected with the facade, are Fig. The principle of double sealing is that a first external seal prevents water on the surface from penetrating and a second seal, perhaps with a hollow-chamber profile, stops air from flowing through.

Turbulence in the interstice e. Installation sequences. Two general principles govern the installation and dismantling of joints based on overlapping principles: Special solutions may be required for joining and sealing reused or refitted structural components e. Elements in the same system can be replaced e. This is especially recommended if there is a risk of damage e. Figure A 2.

The number and thickness of the layers and shells vary greatly. Facade water can be drained off through various layers. This reduces the risk of soiling since less dirt is deposited on horizontal surfaces because it is regularly washed off. Windproofing Facades usually need to be windproof. The following functions often also combined can be allocated to individual layers or shells, e. Water vapour diffusion The water vapour diffusion resistance of layers must generally diminish from the inside to the outside to prevent condensation from forming in a structural component and avoid steam traps.

Heat storage Inside layers with good heat storage capacity can be activated to help regulate the interior climate. Their rear ventilation counteracts the. Improved insulation due to the insulation layer; inner and outer wear and protective layer; heat storage capacity can be used to heat the interior.

The structure itself is not energyproducing, even though it is permeable to solar energy, which is absorbed by structural components in the interior; no insulation. Planners should consider factors such as heat transmission, convection and the exchange of long-wave radiation in choosing the properties of materials, structural components and connections.

This is especially important in and around joints, at the bonded edges of glazing and panels, and in the area of fastening elements because linear or intermittent thermal bridges and leaks can increase the risk of heat losses, condensation and mould formation.

Mistakes made in planning or construction Protection from moisture. Water must not be allowed to penetrate structures in and around closed facade surfaces such as plastered masonry , punctuated facades and partitioned exterior wall structures like glass facades. Any water that does penetrate must be extracted in a controlled manner. The moisture content of materials sensitive to damp, such as certain insulating materials and timber, must also be kept low.

We now know that mould can form even in the absence of visible condensate, resulting in critical surface temperatures being redefined in DIN The basic rule of construction in Central Europe is that the inside of a building should be more vapour-proof than the outside. Condensate can form in multilayer glass facades when moist air inside cavities of the facade meets cold surfaces. The risk of this occurring can be reduced by improving the quality of insulation between exterior layers and ventilating the cavities [5].

The result is that the steamed-up glass surface hardly dries under cold weather conditions. This phenomenon will become increasingly common in future. Sun protection. Planners need to find a balanced relationship between the glazing percentage or type of glazing and the sun-shading system to provide a consistent overall solution. This also applies to added components such as sunshading devices and anti-glare screens and to deflected daylight Fig.

Sun protection systems The primary function of sun protection systems is to prevent overheating and ensure a comfortable interior climate. Solutions are required that ensure an adequate supply of daylight in the interior without overheating it.

This can be achieved by blocking out direct sunshine as far as possible, while diffuse daylight can be transmitted into an interior as necessary to illuminate it. Sun shading systems can be classified into fixed or moving systems. Fixed components are structural components that can project from an exterior wall, be freestanding or consist of fixed louvres see Fig.

One advantage of fixed systems is that they require little maintenance. Some solar radiation may, however, be blocked out, which can reduce light in the interior. Moving systems, in contrast, are almost ideal. The sun protection and light refraction effect of adjustable louvre systems can be optimised if: Systems that do not completely block out direct sun may require appropriate anti-glare screens.

It is important to ensure that sun protection is attached outside the glazing. In windy locations in particular, stable construction of moveable sun protection systems is crucial in ensuring their protective function when there is both sunshine and wind. Glare protection. External interference should not be allowed to impair visual function and comfort.

A distinction is made between physiological glare, which directly impairs vision, and psychological glare, which can cause premature fatigue and adversely affect performance and well-being.

Direct glare is directly caused by a light source, while reflected glare is the result of reflections from light surfaces onto shiny surfaces. These demands are constant, even in the face of strong wind,. Anyone involved in planning and building facades in compliance with generally accepted rules will at some point need to make decisions on materials. This entails making targeted use of the properties of existing construction materials and of those that may need to be developed as well as taking them into account in planning and construction.

The following examples are designed to provide them with guidance and orientation in their work. While Swiss firm Atelier 5 used raw exposed concrete for small residential buildings in building the Halen housing estate near Bern , Louis Kahn chose very smooth surfaces for the Jonas Salk Institute in La Jolla In the s and s many architects increasingly used the options concrete offered for moulding exterior walls and buildings and the various design possibilities of its surfaces.

These buildings — especially the church — model a plastic, rugged structure with powerful, opaque surfaces whose fine texture of formwork structures prevents them from appearing monotonous Fig.

The fluted profiling of its coloured surfaces, alternating smooth grooves with rough, broken piers, creates a sophisticated play of light and shade. More recently architects have often sought to express the impression of a monolithic construction method, down to the last detail. The avoidance of any construction joints, dispensing with visible formwork ties, and structural components with extremely pared-down cross sections and novel appearances has subjected this high-performance material to enormous technical challenges.

Producing concrete on a building site has structural and technical disadvantages, so efforts have been made to break structures down into similar, transportable elements that can be serially produced in prefabrication plants.

These make it possible to work in any weather and ensure higher quality and greater precision in production and higher standards in surface finishes.

The first field factory for precasting concrete elements opened in France in the early s. From assembly-based construction methods using steel-reinforced concrete became increasingly important. In the s and s large panel construction — building with large format, load-bearing walls — became widespread.

Glass Construction Manual 2nd Ed. Paperback

Architects like Angelo Mangiarotti see p. Gerber used orthogonal planar steel-reinforced facade elements in a structurally clear way to clad the columns and spandrel panels of an office building in Dortmund One form of unreinforced facade cladding is small-format, concrete artificial stone panels. Panels fixed with mortar are a robust, easilyworked building material that has been used in construction for more than years, especially at the bases of buildings.

Concrete blocks. From Frank Lloyd Wright explored various ways of using them. Starting from a square basic module, he worked with variously shaped bricks and stones. Buildings like his John Storer house in Hollywood feature richly ornamented facade surfaces with alternating patterns of smooth and structured stones Fig.

Egon Eiermann focused on the motif of a translucent wall, using concrete grid blocks with coloured glass infills in the St Matthew Church in Pforzheim , and the Kaiser-Wilhelm Memorial Church in Berlin In buildings such as the Centraal Beheer office building in Apeldoorn , Fig. Pneumatic structures In , Walter Bird designed the first air-filled pneumatic structure to protect sensitive radar equipment.

Based on his design, pneumatic structures were further developed for civilian uses, such as roofs over swimming pools and tennis courts. Buckminster Fuller caused a furore in with his proposal to build a dome over Manhattan Fig. In , Frei Otto started work with Kenzo Tange on plans to roof over residential complexes in the Arctic.

These developments peaked in at the World Expo in Osaka, which resembled an exhibition of the possibilities for pneumatic structures available at that time [3]. Tent structures From around , Frei Otto worked intensively on further developing applications for tensile-stressed structures, which until then had been almost exclusively produced from natural materials Fig.

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Synthetic fabrics and films are now among the leading materials used to build tent structures due to their outstanding material properties. Plastics manufacture. Plastics consist of materials that do not exist in nature in their final form.

They are usually made from petroleum-derived products and their main characteristic is a macromolecular structure. The following types of plastics are differentiated based on their degree of cross-linking Fig. Plastics have become important in construction because of their advantageous properties for individual applications: Case Backhoe Parts. Case is a North American company that operates out of Illinois. As one of the largest suppliers of new and rebuilt parts for this tractor, you can count on our fast and reliable service.

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Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe July i Acknowledgments The following people with their affiliations contributed to this report.

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The book considers in one handy reference the multitude of pipes, flanges, supports, gaskets, bolts, valves, strainers, flexibles, and expansion joints that ments.

It will go horribly wrong. Inspection A. Stress analysis and safe design normally require appreciation of several related concepts. The work associated with Based on the basic design package, detailed engineering activities are carried out for developing documents and drawings in piping and pipeline department. Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address These stages are linked to the project schedule in respect of the supply of engineering information from upstream disciplines Process, Mechanical, Instruments etc.

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In the process industry, a standard set of symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes. The design of process plants is a complex team effort involving different disciplines of engineering: process chemical , mechanical, piping, electrical, instrumentation, controls, materials and project.

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From assembly-based construction methods using steel-reinforced concrete became increasingly important. Material properties Semi-finished products for exterior walls General characteristics B 7. The thicknesses and composition of glass ceramics are listed in tables 2. Infringements are subject to the penalty clauses of the copyright law. In this age there was a lack of time and leisure to remain in these rooms during the day.

A special feature of these nets is the members that make up the square mesh:

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