The Harvard WesternSydU style is one of a number of styles of referencing or bibliographic . pdf>. 1. What is referencing? 2. 2. Why should I reference? 2. 3. What should I reference? 3. 4. What is a citation? 3. 5. How do I write citations using the Harvard style?. Harvard referencing style uses references in two places in a piece of writing: in the text and in a reference list at the end. These can be in PDF or html format.
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This guide will help you apply the Harvard referencing style to your writing at UniSA. .. ioCSF/partner_deliverables/computerescue.info >. Author/ . if I cannot find the reference type I need in the OU Harvard guide to citing references? . computerescue.info (Accessed 21 February ). Thompson, K. This is a guide to the Harvard system but you should always check your course handbook and/or module A PDF is a format rather than a type of resource.
Most dates can be determined or guessed following the recommendations above. Page numbers In-text references should include page number details if available if you are paraphrasing or quoting. Page numbers are not required if referencing an entire work, eg. Milligan If page numbers are not provided or possible, then author name and year of publication are sufficient. Dawkins , pp.
All in-text citations must have fully detailed, corresponding entries placed in a reference list at the end of your assignment, unless an in-text citation is a personal communication which has been fully written into the body of your assignment and your assignment is not significantly comprised of personal communications.
If an organisation name begins with 'The', ignore it and arrange their name alphabetically by the next word, eg. Each new information source should begin on a new line. Authors may be a single individual, a number of individuals, an organisation, a number of organisations, or any combination of these. Full names of organisations are used, not abbreviations or acronyms.
Names are arranged in the reference list entry in the same order that they appear on the actual information source you use.
Do not re-order them. If no author can be identified or determined at all, then the title is placed first in the reference list entry, and the title should be italicized.
Next comes the date. Then other details as per normal for the type of information source eg.
Remember that Harvard Style is concerned with attributing primarily by author s and by date. Therefore, you are permitted to move around a whole website to try to determine authorship either individual s or organisation s of tee content which you can then assert to be the same author s of a particular webpage.
Book titles, journal names and website titles should be in italics. Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns of book titles should be capitalised. All major words in the titles of journals, newspapers and magazines should be capitalised. Book in a series Insert the series title after the title of the work.
If the series has a number or volume, insert 'vol. If more than one place of publication is listed, use only the first-listed place. Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names e. NSW not N. Add extra location information if there is more than one place with the same name, eg.
Books Page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list for books. If you do use them, add them at the end of the citation, preceded by a comma, and followed by a full stop, e.
Huth, E , 'Fragments of participation in architecture, Articles Page numbers appear at the end of the citation, preceded by a comma, and followed by a full stop, e. Some articles do not have pagination, but are instead allocated an article number. The article may then simply have its own internal pagination, or pagination using the article number as part of the pagination. If the article has an article number and the article number is used as part of the pagination, list the pagination as it appears on the article eg.
Formal title for internet address. In-text Direct quote "The universe has Paraphrase Dawkins , p. Notes In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials, unless you are using two or more sources that have an author with the same surname and the sources were all published in the same year.
In-text Direct quote Tiernan and Weller , p. Notes List author's names in the order they are listed in the book. In-text Direct quote Gabler et al. Gabler et al. List all authors do not use et al. In-text Direct quote Higher education in Australia: Notes Use the title and the year in place of the author. Do not place a comma between the title and year. Italicise the title, but do not italicise the year of publication.
Do not use Anon or Anonymous.
UQ Harvard referencing style
In-text Direct quote The "seller is required to Paraphrase The International Chamber of Commerce , p. Notes Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author. Use the same rules as for books with one author. In-text Direct quote "States have Paraphrase Connell , p. Notes Enclose the chapter title in single quotation marks. After the chapter title, insert the word ' in ' before the name of the editor s.
Use ed. In your reference list, use the editor's name with initials before surname e. K Crowley If there is no chapter author, use the title in place of the author in-text and in the reference list. In-text Direct quote "Volunteer programmes are Notes The edition statement is only included if this is not the first edition e.
Insert the edition statement after the title. A reprint or revised version is not a new edition and does not need specific mentioning; year of publication is enough to identify a reprint. In-text Direct quote "Demographic challenges are Notes Insert the series title after the title of the work. The series title is not italicised.
In-text Paraphrase The graph de Board, illustrates Provide the bibliographic details of the image first, then the details of the information source in which it appears. If the author of the image is different to the author of the book, then guidelines similar to those at Chapter in an edited book will apply. If the year of publication of the image is different to the year of publication of the book, those different dates must be indicated in the reference list entry.
After the title, insert an identifier to describe what you are referencing: If you have one information source and use an image that was created by one person and a section of text written by a different person, or if you use two images from one source and they were both created by different people, then you will need to create separate reference list entries for each. In-text Direct quote Appleby, Reilly and Grenfell , p.
Instead of place of publication, use the name of the ebook collection e. In-text Direct quote "The main reason Paraphrase Argibay-losada et al. Notes Follow this example for journal and magazine articles from library databases or in print. For articles freely available online, follow the example for Article on the internet below. Enclose the article title in single quotes ' If the article has an article number and the article number is used as part of the pagination, list the pagination as it appears on the article, eg.
Notes Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name. For the reference list, enclose the article title in single quotes ' In-text, the article title is not enclosed in single quotes, but is in italics instead. In-text Direct quote "Big investors will Notes Where there is no author, use the article title instead.
Magazine articles, sourced from library databases or in print, are referenced the same as journal articles. Paraphrase Notes Follow this example for articles freely available on the internet. For articles from library databases or in print format, follow the example for journal or newspaper articles. Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name — follow the guidelines and examples at Journal Article no author and Newspaper Article no author.
In-text Direct quote "Most official estimates Paraphrase Yates looked at the equity implications of tax Notes No author: Use the title of the webpage. Organisation as author: The author may be the same as the organisation hosting the website.
Citing and referencing: Harvard
The year the webpage was created or last updated. Otherwise, see Dates under guidelines for reference lists above. The title of the webpage or document e. In-text Paraphrase In the image above Lyle58 you can see If the author of the image is different to the author of the article, then guidelines similar to those at Chapter in an edited book blended with Website will apply.
If the year of publication of the image is different to the year of publication of the article, those different dates must be indicated in the reference list entry. If there is no author's name but only a username, use the username as the author name and use it exactly as it appears on the information source.
How do I maintain confidentiality? For some forms of academic writing, it is not possible to provide the name of a cited source for reasons of confidentiality. This is especially the case in a health context. For documents available to the general public, for example patient information leaflets produced by a Trust: The information provided by the Trust about this service is written in several languages Appendices In your appendices, these documents would then be labelled as Appendix 1, Appendix 2 and Appendix 3.
When you submit academic work for assessment, you sign to state that the work is your own, that confidentiality has been maintained and that any names used in the work are pseudonyms. It is good practice for you to state at the outset of your work that pseudonyms have been used.
Confidentiality must be maintained within referencing as well as your written work. If internal documents from Trusts, Clinical Commissioning Groups, Local Authorities or Special Health Authorities are being cited, for example, policies, procedures or care plans, it is essential that the name is never divulged as these documents are not available to the general public.
The reference list should include details of all the sources you have cited in your work. Sometimes your tutors ask you to produce a bibliography as well as a reference list. The term bibliography normally refers to a list of items that you have used for background reading to inform your opinion but which are not cited directly in your text.
A reference list is always required when you cite other people's work within your own work. The terms reference list and bibliography are sometimes used interchangeably. Make sure that you know what is required from you before you complete your work. An annotated bibliography includes the full reference to sources with the addition of notes which summarise and evaluate each source.If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.
New York: Reference World, p. Official name of University. Enclose the lecture title in single quotes. National service framework for older people. The road to serfdom. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. In-text "Big investors will Notes Where there is no author, use the article title instead. Harvard In-Text Citations Overview Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.
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