The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of "The History of Reservations in India From The s to the s" (PDF). Cynthia Stephen. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March “A proper reconstruction of the history of the Tamil country in the Political History of Tamil Nadu with a Cultural and Socio-Economic Perspective pdf>. (Download) Tamil Nadu Board Textbooks: Class 11 (History) India - Geographical Features and their Impact on History, 1. 2. Download Free Ebook (PDF).

History Of Tamil Nadu Pdf

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[Download] History Textbooks of Tamilnadu State Education Board for maths- science-history-civics: all subjects are given in single PDF files. தமிழ்நாடு வரலாறு - Tamilnadu History Updates & Discussions Tamil This thread is dedicated for news, updates, discussion on history of Tamilnadu. .. computerescue.info computerescue.info The Kalabhras ruled over Tamilnadu immediately after Khāravela. Thus, the invasion of Khāravela was a major turning point in the history of Tamilnadu that not.

An aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple from the top of the southern gopuram , looking north.

The temple was rebuilt by the Vijayanagar Empire. Power struggles of the 18th century — [ edit ] By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in , the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnatic , who had his seat in Arcot from onward.

Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the Thanjavur Nayaks led to a short-lived Thanjavur Maratha kingdom.

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The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar or 'polygar' as called by British and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic. Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions.

Around , the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat , [43] while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar.

(Hindi) Ancient History-Summary of Class 11 Tamil Nadu Textbook for UPSC

British constructed Fort St. George [45] and established a trading post at Madras.

The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years' War. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore.

Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts.

In , a tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British. In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.

Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Veeran Sundaralingam — was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in which killed more than British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai , younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers , Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army [52].

The Pudhukkottai Thondaimans rose to power over the Pudhukkottai area by the end of the 17th Century. See also: Tamil history from Sangam literature Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three monarchical states, headed by kings called Vendhar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination Vel or Velir.

The Tamil area had an independent existence outside the control of these northern empires.

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The Tamil kings and chiefs were always in conflict with each other mostly over property. The royal courts were mostly places of social gathering rather than places of dispensation of authority; they were centres for distribution of resources.

Tamil literature Tolkappiyam sheds some light on early religion. The names of the three dynasties, Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras, are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscribed — BCE inscriptions, among the kingdoms, which though not subject to Ashoka , were on friendly terms with him.

He is mentioned in a number of poems in the Sangam poetry. They attribute to him the conquest of the whole of India up to the Himalayas and the construction of the flood banks of the river Kaveri with the aid of his feudatories.

Kocengannan was another famous early Chola king who has been extolled in a number of poems of the Sangam period. He was even made a Saiva saint during the medieval period.

History of Tamil Nadu

Pandyas are also mentioned in Sangam Literature, as well as by Greek and Roman sources during this period. Megasthenes in his Indika mentions the Pandyan kingdom.The Pallavas had the more difficult existence of the two as they had to fight on two fronts—against the Pandyas as wells as the Chalukyas. See also K.

This city was submerged by sea at the end of the first Sangam period. The unworthy descendants of Rishi Pulastya being named as Rakshasas and expelled from Saptasindhu region had no other option to migrate towards the south of Vindhyas and gradually settled in the region from Dandakarnya to Sri Lanka in the beginning of the early Rigvedic period.

This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom. But the literature of the third Sangam period clearly indicates that there were no regional variations of Tamil.

ILANA from Port Arthur
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