GREAT INVENTORS AND THEIR INVENTIONS. 2 all. The man who succeeded in giving to the world this new power was James Watt. Steam now propels. Important Inventions and Discoveries PDF covers the list of all Important Inventions This list gives important Inventions and Inventor name. g Dr. Spencer was excited about his discovery. h He saw the melted chocolate. Dr. Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven. The invention happened by.
|Language:||English, Japanese, Portuguese|
|ePub File Size:||19.32 MB|
|PDF File Size:||11.86 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
New things that are made or created are called inventions. Cars and There are also many women inventors, however they are not as famous as their. inventors, their inventions and patents through games, thought provoking .. member states is available at: computerescue.info pdf. Static genral knowledge topic which covers all comitative exams such as IBPS, SSC, CPO, Railways,Banking. List of all famous Inventors and.
The U. Patent Office issued Edison 1, patents during his lifetime, the most granted to one person. Hailed as a genius, Edison himself emphasized the value of plain determination. Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration, he insisted. He also understood the value of working with others. In fact, one of his greatest contributions to American technology involved organized research.
He invested the money in building an industrial research laboratory, the first ever. It led to his large facilities at Menlo Park, New Jersey, and, later, labs in other locations.
At times as many as one hundred people worked for him, some of whom, such as Nikola Tesla and Reginald Fessenden, became celebrated inventors in their own right. At his labs Edison not only developed electrical items, such as the light bulb and storage battery; he also produced an efficient mimeograph and worked on innovations in metallurgy, organic chemistry, photography and motion pictures, and phonography.
The phonograph, he once said, was his favorite invention. Edison never stopped working.
He was still receiving patents the year he died. Not a man to abandon an invention, however, he spent the next five years examining the failed batteries and refining his design. He discovered that the repeated charging and discharging of the battery caused a shift in the distribution of the graphite in the nickel hydroxide electrode. By using a different type of graphite, he was able to eliminate this problem and produce a very dependable power source.
The Ford Motor Company, founded by Henry Ford, a former Edison employee, began the large-scale production of gasolinepowered automobiles in and introduced the inexpensive, easyto-drive Model T in The introduction of the improved Edison battery in gave a boost to electric car manufacturers, but their new position in the market would be short-lived.
In , Charles Kettering invented an electric starter for gasoline-powered vehicles that eliminated the need for troublesome and risky hand cranking.
By , this device was available on all gasoline-powered automobiles, and public interest in electrically powered cars rapidly diminished. Although the Kettering starter required a battery, it required much less capacity than an electric motor would have and was almost ideally suited to the six-volt lead-acid battery.
Impact Edison lost the race to produce an electrical power source that would meet the needs of automotive transportation. Instead, the internal combustion engine developed by Henry Ford became the standard. Interest in electrically powered transportation diminished as immense reserves of crude oil, from which gasoline could be obtained, were discovered first in the southwestern United States and then on the Arabian peninsula.
Nevertheless, the Edison cell found a variety of uses and has been manufactured continuously throughout most of the twentieth century much as Edison designed it.
Electrically powered trucks proved to be well suited for local deliveries, and some department stores maintained fleets of such trucks into the mids.
Electrical power is still preferable to internal combustion for indoor use, where exhaust fumes are a significant problem, so forklifts in factories and passenger transport vehi- Alkaline storage battery 15 cles at airports still make use of the Edison-type power source. The Edison battery also continues to be used in mines, in railway signals, in some communications equipment, and as a highly reliable source of standby emergency power.
See also Compressed-air-accumulating power plant; Internal combustion engine; Photoelectric cell; Photovoltaic cell.
Famous Inventions and Inventors PDF
Further Reading Baldwin, Neil. Edison: Inventing the Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Boyd, Thomas Alvin. New York: Arno Press, Bryan, Ford R. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, Cramer, Carol. Thomas Edison.
San Diego, Calif. Israel, Paul. Edison: A Life of Invention. New York: Wiley, The person behind the invention: Fritz Haber , a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Need for Nitrogen The nitrogen content of the soil, essential to plant growth, is maintained normally by the deposition and decay of old vegetation and by nitrates in rainfall.
If, however, the soil is used extensively for agricultural purposes, more intensive methods must be used to maintain soil nutrients such as nitrogen. One such method is crop rotation, in which successive divisions of a farm are planted in rotation with clover, corn, or wheat, for example, or allowed to lie fallow for a year or so. The clover is able to absorb nitrogen from the air and deposit it in the soil through its roots.
As population has increased, however, farming has become more intensive, and the use of artificial fertilizerssome containing nitrogenhas become almost universal. Nitrogen-bearing compounds, such as potassium nitrate and ammonium chloride, have been used for many years as artificial fertilizers.
Much of the nitrate used, mainly potassium nitrate, came from Chilean saltpeter, of which a yearly amount of half a million tons was imported at the beginning of the twentieth century into Europe and the United States for use in agriculture. Ammonia was produced by dry distillation of bituminous coal and other lowgrade fuel materials.
Originally, coke ovens discharged this valuable material into the atmosphere, but more economical methods were found later to collect and condense these ammonia-bearing vapors. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany had practically no source of fertilizer-grade nitrogen; almost all of its supply Ammonia 17 came from the deserts of northern Chile.
As demand for nitrates increased, it became apparent that the supply from these vast deposits would not be enough. Other sources needed to be found, and the almost unlimited supply of nitrogen in the atmosphere 80 percent nitrogen was an obvious source.
Temperature and Pressure When Fritz Haber and coworkers began his experiments on ammonia production in , Haber decided to repeat the experiments of the British chemist Sir William Ramsay and Sydney Young, who in had studied the decomposition of ammonia at about degrees Celsius.
They had found that a certain amount of ammonia was always left undecomposed. In other words, the reaction between ammonia and its constituent elementsnitrogen and hydrogenhad reached a state of equilibrium. Haber decided to determine the point at which this equilibrium took place at temperatures near 1, degrees Celsius. He tried several approaches, reacting pure hydrogen with pure nitrogen, and starting with pure ammonia gas and using iron filings as a catalyst.
Catalytic agents speed up a reaction without affecting it otherwise. Having determined the point of equilibrium, he next tried different catalysts and found nickel to be as effective as iron, and calcium and manganese even better. At 1, degrees Celsius, the rate of reaction was enough to produce practical amounts of ammonia continuously.
Further work by Haber showed that increasing the pressure also increased the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium. For example, at degrees Celsius, the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium at 1 atmosphere of pressure was very small, but at atmospheres, the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium was far greater. BASF agreed to study Habers process and to investigate different catalysts on a large scale.
Soon thereafter, the process became a commercial success. Considered a leading chemist of his age, Haber was born in Breslau now Wroclaw, Poland in A brilliant student, he earned a doctorate quickly, specializing in organic chemistry, and briefly worked as an industrial chemist.
Although he soon took an academic job, throughout his career Haber believed that science must benefit societynew theoretical discoveries must find practical applications. Beginning in , he applied new chemical techniques to fix atmospheric nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
Nitrogen in the form of nitrates was urgently sought because nitrates were necessary to fertilize crops and natural sources were becoming rare.
Only artificial nitrates could sustain the amount of agriculture needed to feed expanding populations. In Haber succeeded in finding an efficient, cheap process to make ammonia and convert it to nitrates, and by German manufacturers had built large plants to exploit his techniques.
He was lauded as a great benefactor to humanity. However, his efforts to help Germany during World War I, even though he hated war, turned his life into a nightmare.
His wife committed suicide because of his chlorine gas research, which also poisoned his international reputation and tainted his Nobel Prize in Chemistry. After the war he redirected his energies to helping Germany rebuild its economy. Eight years of experiments in extracting gold from seawater ended in failure, but he did raise the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry, which he directed, to international prominence.
Nonetheless, Haber had to flee Adolf Hitlers Nazi regime in and died a year later, better known for his war research than for his fundamental service to agriculture and industry. Nobel Foundation Impact With the beginning of World War I, nitrates were needed more urgently for use in explosives than in agriculture.
After the fall of Antwerp, 50, tons of Chilean saltpeter were discovered in the Ammonia 19 harbor and fell into German hands. Because the ammonia from Habers process could be converted readily into nitrates, it became an important war resource. Habers other contribution to the German war effort was his development of poison gas, which was used for the chlorine gas attack on Allied troops at Ypres in He also directed research on gas masks and other protective devices.
At the end of the war, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Haber for his development of the process for making synthetic ammonia. Because the war was still fresh in everyones memory, it became one of the most controversial Nobel awards ever made. Haber, Inventor of German Asphyxiating Gas. Haber left Germany in under duress from the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi authorities. He was invited to accept a position with the University of Cambridge, England, and died on a trip to Basel, Switzerland, a few months later, a great man whose spirit had been crushed by the actions of an evil regime.
See also Fuel cell; Refrigerant gas; Silicones; Thermal cracking process. Further Reading Goran, Morris Herbert. The Story of Fritz Haber. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, Jansen, Sarah.
Endeavour 24, no. Smil, Vaclav. Cambridge, Mass. The people behind the invention: Douglas Bevis, an English physician Aubrey Milunsky , an American pediatrician How Babies Grow For thousands of years, the inability to see or touch a fetus in the uterus was a staggering problem in obstetric care and in the diagnosis of the future mental and physical health of human offspring. A beginning to the solution of this problem occurred on February 23, , when The Lancet published a study called The Antenatal Prediction of a Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn.
This study, carried out by physician Douglas Bevis, described the use of amniocentesis to assess the risk factors found in the fetuses of Rh-negative women impregnated by Rh-positive men.
The article is viewed by many as a landmark in medicine that led to the wide use of amniocentesis as a tool for diagnosing fetal maturity, fetal health, and fetal genetic deects.
At the beginning of a human pregnancy conception an egg and a sperm unite to produce the fertilized egg that will become a new human being.
After conception, the fertilized egg passes from the oviduct into the uterus, while dividing and becoming an organized cluster of cells capable of carrying out different tasks in the ninemonth-long series of events leading up to birth.
About a week after conception, the cluster of cells, now a vesicle a fluid-filled sac containing the new human cells , attaches to the uterine lining, penetrates it, and becomes intimately intertwined with uterine tissues. In time, the merger between the vesicle and the uterus results in formation of a placenta that connects the mother and the embryo, and an amniotic sac filled with the amniotic fluid in which the embryo floats.
Amniocentesis 21 Eight weeks after conception, the embryo now a Amniotic Fluid fetus is about 2. At this time, about two and one-half months after her last menstruation, Uterus the expectant mother typically visits a physician and finds out she is pregnant.
Also at this time, expecting mothers often begin to worry about possible birth Physicians extract amniotic fluid directly from the womb and examine it to determine the health of the defects in the babies they fetus. Diabetic mothers and mothers older than thirtyfive years have higher than usual chances of delivering babies who have birth defects.
Many other factors inferred from the medical history an expecting mother provides to her physician can indicate the possible appearance of birth defects. In some cases, knowledge of possible physical problems in a fetus may allow their treatment in the uterus and save the newborn from problems that could persist throughout life or lead to death in early childhood.
Information is obtained through the examination of the amniotic fluid in which the fetus is suspended throughout pregnancy. The process of obtaining this fluid is called amniocentesis.
Diagnosing Diseases Before Birth Amniocentesis is carried out in several steps. First, the placenta and the fetus are located by the use of ultrasound techniques. Next, the expecting mother may be given a local anesthetic; a long needle is then inserted carefully into the amniotic sac.
As soon as amniotic fluid is seen, a small sample about four teaspoons is drawn into a hypodermic syringe and the syringe is removed. Amniocentesis is 22 Amniocentesis nearly painless, and most patients feel only a little abdominal pressure during the procedure. The amniotic fluid of early pregnancy resembles blood serum.
As pregnancy continues, its content of substances from fetal urine and other fetal secretions increases. The fluid also contains fetal cells from skin and from the gastrointestinal, reproductive, and respiratory tracts. Therefore, it is of great diagnostic use. Immediately after the fluid is removed from the fetus, the fetal cells are separated out.
Then, the cells are used for genetic analysis and the amniotic fluid is examined by means of various biochemical techniques. One important use of the amniotic fluid from amniocentesis is the determination of its lecithin and sphingomyelin content.
Lecithins and sphingomyelins are two types of body lipids fatty molecules that are useful diagnostic tools. Lecithins are important because they are essential components of the so-called pulmonary surfactant of mature lungs. The pulmonary surfactant acts at lung surfaces to prevent the collapse of the lung air sacs alveoli when a person exhales. Subnormal lecithin production in a fetus indicates that it most likely will exhibit respiratory distress syndrome or a disease called hyaline membrane disease after birth.
Both diseases can be fatal, so it is valuable to determine whether fetal lecithin levels are adequate for appropriate lung function in the newborn baby. This is particularly important in fetuses being carried by diabetic mothers, who frequently produce newborns with such problems. Often, when the risk of respiratory distress syndrome is identified through amniocentesis, the fetus in question is injected with hormones that help it produce mature lungs.
This effect is then confirmed by the repeated use of amniocentesis. Many other problems can also be identified by the use of amniocentesis and corrected before the baby is born. Consequences In the years that have followed Beviss original observation, many improvements in the methodology of amniocentesis and in the techniques used in gathering and analyzing the genetic and biochemical information obtained have led to good results.
Hundreds of debilitating hereditary diseases can be diagnosed and some amelioratedby Amniocentesis 23 the examination of amniotic fluid and fetal cells isolated by amniocentesis. For many parents who have had a child afflicted by some hereditary disease, the use of the technique has become a major consideration in family planning. Furthermore, many physicians recommend strongly that all mothers over the age of thirty-four be tested by amniocentesis to assist in the diagnosis of Down syndrome, a congenital but nonhereditary form of mental deficiency.
There remains the question of whether such solutions are morally appropriate, but parentsand societynow have a choice resulting from the techniques that have developed since Beviss observation. It is also hoped that these techniques will lead to means for correcting and preventing diseases and preclude the need for considering the therapeutic termination of any pregnancy.
Further Reading Milunsky, Aubrey.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Rapp, Rayna. New York: Routledge, Rothenberg, Karen H. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, Rothman, Barbara Katz. New York: Norton, The people behind the invention: Gerhard Domagk , a German physician who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Paul Ehrlich , a German chemist and bacteriologist who was the cowinner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine The Search for Magic Bullets Although quinine had been used to treat malaria long before the twentieth century, Paul Ehrlich, who discovered a large number of useful drugs, is usually considered the father of modern chemotherapy.
Ehrlich was familiar with the technique of using dyes to stain microorganisms in order to make them visible under a microscope, and he suspected that some of these dyes might be used to poison the microorganisms responsible for certain diseases without hurting the patient. Ehrlich thus began to search for dyes that could act as magic bullets that would destroy microorganisms and cure diseases.
From to , Ehrlich tested numerous compounds that had been developed by the German dye industry. He eventually found that a number of complex trypan dyes would inhibit the protozoans that caused African sleeping sickness. Ehrlich and his coworkers also synthesized hundreds of organic compounds that contained arsenic. In , he found that one of these compounds, salvarsan, was useful in curing syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema.
This was an important discovery, because syphilis killed thousands of people each year. Salvarsan, however, was often toxic to patients, because it had to be taken in large doses for as long as two years to effect a cure. Ehrlich thus searched for and found a less toxic arsenic compound, neosalvarsan, which replaced salvarsan in Antibacterial drugs.
Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin Stethoscope Rane Laennec Thermo Flask Dewar Camera Steven Sasson Quantum Theory of Plank Radiation Jet Engine Frank Whittle Crescograph Jagdish Chandra Bose Portland Cement Joseph Aspdin Optical Fibre Narinder Singh Kapany North Pole Robert Peary Green House Gases Joseph Furier Nylon Wallace Carothers Laser Theodore Harold Maiman Radar Heinrich Hertz Fountain pen Waterman Homi J. Benjamin Franklin B. John Dunlop C. Alessandro Volta D.
K Macmillan E. None of the above Answer: D Who invented radio? Alexander Graham Bell B. Baird C. Alfred Nobel B. Issac Newton C. Einstein D. Charles Babbage B. Pascal D. Peano E.
Codd Answer: C Who invented electric battery? George Ohm C. Micheal Faraday E. None of the above Answer: C Who invented penicillin? Alexander Fleming B. Louis Pasteur C. Dresser D.
Sir Freedrick Grant Banting B. Sir Alexander Fleming C. Edward Jenner D. Louis Pasteur E. None of the above Answer: C The microchip was invented by A. BARC C. IBM D. Intel Answer: D Which of the following invented Algebra? Meghatithi B. Bhaskara C. Apastamb D. Aryabhatta E. Edward Hubble B. Albert Einstein C. Samuel Colt D. Baird B. Lawrence C. Marconi D.
IFIA | International Federation of Inventors' Associations
Digital printing B. It utilizes thermochromic paper. It was invented in These printers are generally used in hospitals for ultrasound sonogram devices E. They consume less power and make less noise than dot matrix printers. Thermal printing or direct thermal printing is a digital printing process which produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermo chromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head.
Who invented the first metal movable-type printing system? Amir Khusro B. Johannes Gutenberg C. Adolph Rickenbacker D. Galileo Galilei B. Evangelista Torricelli C.
Friedrich Bremer D.
List of Famous Inventions and their Inventors
Bose B. Roy C. Bose D. Sir Frank Whittle C. Thomas Savery D.Electrical power is still preferable to internal combustion for indoor use. Microsoft Bill Gates and Paul Allen His assistant in this work was the veterinarian R. Who created Automobile, internal combustion gasoline-powered?
Electron microscope. Plague Vaccine Waldemar Haffkine Rice and wheat strains.
- CHANDER PAHAR STORY IN BENGALI PDF
- THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH EBOOK
- SENSE AND SENSIBILITY PDF
- CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS PDF
- YUGANDHAR SHIVAJI SAWANT PDF
- INTEGRALS AND SERIES PRUDNIKOV DOWNLOAD
- GEOMETRIC PROBLEMS ON MAXIMA AND MINIMA PDF
- OPEN SOURCE ANNOUNCEMENT.PDF
- BELO SACRIFICIO PDF