for EXCELLENCEI. MANUFACTURIN. NAM. Learning to See value stream mapping to add value and eliminate muda by. Mike Rother. John Shook. eee ETC COB y=1 PSR) ee) ToT UR-ILON EMU Mike Rother John Shook foreword by James Womack, Dan Jones KEY QUESTIONS FOR FUTURE-STATE DESIGN. value stream computerescue.info [Mike Rother, John Shook] Learning to See Value S(computerescue.info). The value stream mapping method was created on the basis of the Toyota's material-and information flow diagram. Firstly, this was published in Learning to See in by Mike Rother & John Shook[7]. The value stream mapping's method[7]is suggested for mapping of the current state.

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What is “LEAN”? MIT International Motor Vehicle Program. – Toyota Production System as “LEAN Production”. ▫ Flow production from Ford. ▫ PDSA from Deming. Learning to See. Value-Stream Mapping to Create. Value and Eliminate Muda. By Mike Rother and John Shook. Foreword by Jim Womack and Dan Jones. The launch of the book “Learning To See” by John Shook and Mike Rother back in gave the Lean movement the powerful method of Value Stream.

Note Do not map every downloadd part in your product family. Just draw the flow for one or two main raw materials. Presentation of all downloadd parts is best shown on a process-level layout diagram.

Let s add the second aspect of our value stream map: To do this we ll need a few more icons and arrows, in particular a narrow line to show information flows. This line is modified with a lightening-like wiggle when the information flows electronically via electronic data interchange rather than by paper.

A small-box icon or node is used to label or describe different information-flow arrows. In our Acme Stamping example, we draw the flow of information back from the State Street Assembly Plant to Acme s Production Control department and from there to Acme s steel-coil supplier. Notice there are separate lines for the forecasts and daily orders, as these are different information flows.

The Acme production control department is drawn with a process box, including the note that Acme uses a computerized Materials Requirements Planning system MRP to schedule the shop floor.

Acme production control collects information from customers and the shop floor, consolidates and processes it, and sends specific instructions to each manufacturing process about what it should produce and when.

Production control also sends a daily shipping schedule to the shipping department. For example, in many shops supervisors count inventory and make schedule adjustments based on such information. We call this go see scheduling and show it with an eyeglass icon.

Try to incorporate these informal scheduling processes into your map using the same information arrows and nodes. If it looks messy, that s probably because it is! Push means that a process produces something regardless of the actual needs of the downstream customer process and pushes it ahead.

Push typically results from producing to a schedule that guesses what the next process will need. Unfortunately this is nearly impossible to do consistently because schedules change and production rarely goes exactly according to schedule.

When each process has its own schedule it is operating as an isolated island, disconnected from any sort of downstream customer. Each process is able to set batch sizes and to produce at a pace that make sense from its perspective, instead of the value stream s perspective.

In this situation, the supplying processes will tend to make parts their customer processes don t need now, and those parts are pushed into storage. This type of batch and push processing makes it almost impossible to establish the smooth flow of work from one process to the next that is a hallmark of lean production. The mapping icon for push movement of material is a striped arrow. At Acme Stamping, only the shipping department is connected in any way to a customer.

Each of the other processes is producing according to a schedule, so the transfer of material from one process Push to the next is occurring via push.

A push arrow is drawn between each process. Note Be wary of material movements that someone calls pull, but are actually still a form of push. See page 57 for a discussion of supermarket pull systems.

The Toyota Kata Practice Guide

To qualify as pull, parts must not be produced or conveyed when there is no kanban, and the quantity of parts produced must be the same as specified on the kanban. Go see schedule adjustments are not a true pull. You can also see how a value stream map differs from the typical visual tool used in operations analysis -- the facility layout.

The value stream map makes the welter of events shown in the plant layout suddenly comprehensible from the perspective of the product s value stream and the customer. With the data from observation of current operations drawn or recorded on the map, we can summarize the current condition of this value stream.

Draw a timeline under the process boxes and inventory triangles to compile the production lead time, which is the time it takes one part to make its way through the shop floor, beginning with arrival as raw material through to shipment to the customer. Note The shorter your production lead time, the shorter the time between paying for raw material and getting paid for product made from those materials.

A shorter production lead time will lead to an increase in the number of inventory turns, a measure with which you may be more familiar.

Lead times in days for each inventory triangle are calculated as follows: By adding the lead times through each process and through each inventory triangle in the material flow, we can arrive at a good estimate of total production lead time. At Acme Stamping this number is For maps with multiple upstream flows, use the longest time path to compute total lead time.

Now add only the value-adding times or the processing times, for each process in the value stream. Comparing value-added or processing time to total lead time should give you quite a shock. At Acme Stamping the total processing time involved in making one piece is only seconds, whereas that piece takes At Acme Stamping the lead time through a process and the cycle time are the same. In many cases however, the lead time for one part to move through a process is longer than the cycle time.

You can draw both lead time through a process and the value-adding time as follows: We hope that now you can see the value stream and begin to recognize areas of overproduction. However, a current state map and the effort required to create it are pure muda unless you use your map to quickly create and implement a future-state map that eliminates sources of waste and increases value for the customer.

We will describe just how to do this in the rest of Learning to See. Your Turn Before we proceed to the creation of a future state map, you may find it useful to get a little more current state practice. We therefore have provided the following current state facts for a more custom-products oriented company called TWI Industries. We invite you now to take another blank sheet of 11 x 17 paper and carefully draw a current state value stream map for TWI Industries.

You can then compare your current state map with the one we ve drawn for TWI, as shown in Appendix B. However, be sure not to peek at Appendix C! This case concerns one product family -- Steering Arms - - which are produced in many configurations. TWI s customers for this product family are both originalequipment tractor builders and the aftermarket repair business. Because of the wide variety of product configurations and the fact that customer configuration requirements vary from order to order, steering arms are a make-to-order business.

It currently takes a customer order 27 days to get through TWI s production processes. This long lead time and a significant order backlog have prompted TWI to quote a day lead time to customers. However, TWI s customers cannot accurately predict their size requirements more than 2 weeks out, and thus they make adjustments to their orders 2 weeks before shipment.

These order adjustments lead to order expediting on the shop floor at TWI. Although TWI Production Control releases customer orders to production roughly in the order that they are received, orders are batched by product configuration on the shop floor to reduce the number of time-consuming changeovers.

This also creates a need for order expediting. The Product A steering arm is a metal rod with a forged fitting welded to each end. TWI s steering arms are available in 20 different lengths, 2 diameters, and with 3 different types of end fittings. Each end of the steering arm can have a different fitting. This means there are different steering arm part numbers that TWI supplies. A customer order ranges from 25 to pieces, with an average of 50 pieces. Corrugated-box packaging with up to 5 steering arms in a box.

Several daily shipments per day by truck to various customers. Each customer s configuration requirements vary greatly from order to order. TWI requires orders to arrive 60 days before shipping date. Customers often adjust their size mix 2 weeks before the shipping date.

Production Processes see diagram TWI s processes for the steering arm product family involve cutting a metal rod followed by welding end fittings to the rod, deflash machine removal of excess weldment , painting at an outside vendor, and subsequent assembly of the end fittings.

The forged end-fitting sockets are also machined at TWI. Finished steering arms are staged and shipped to customers on a daily basis. Switching between rod lengths requires a 15 minute changeover at the cutting, welding, and deflash operations. Switching between rod diameters takes a 1 hour changeover at the cutting, welding, and deflash operations. This longer diameter changeover is due mostly to an increased quality-control inspection requirement.

Switching between the three types of forged end fittings takes a 2 hour changeover at the machining operation. Steel rods are supplied by Michigan Steel Co. The lead time for obtaining rods is 16 weeks. There are two shipments per month. Raw forgings for the end fittings are supplied by Indiana Castings. The lead time for obtaining forgings is 12 weeks.

Two shift operation in all production departments. Eight 8 hours every shift, with overtime, if necessary. Two 15 minute breaks during each shift. Manual processes stop during breaks.

Issues daily priority list to production supervisors. Supervisors sequence shop orders through their departments according to this list. Receives customer size-changes 2 weeks before shipment and advises supervisors to expedite these orders. Issues daily shipping schedule to Shipping Department.

Process Information 1. Welding Workstation II dedicated to this product family - This operation welds the second machined forging to the rod. End-fitting Assembly dedicated to this product family - Manual process with six operators. Machining of Forgings dedicated to this product family - Automatic machining process with one machine attendant.

Shipping Department - Removes parts from finished goods warehouse and stages them for truck shipment to customer. The Catch of designing your future-state value stream is that you will be much more successful if you ve already done it many times! This is where a sensei who has the learning curve you need can be a big help. However, we don t all have access to a good sensei and some of you don t want one anyway.

After all, Ohno didn t have consultants guiding him as he built Toyota s production system through trial and error after World War II. In fact, it is an invaluable learning experience to take a crack at a future-state value stream with your own resources, even if you soon see problems with your approach and modify it in the spirit of continuous improvement.

And, until a day in the future when you can make your products in a complete continuous flow with lead time short enough to allow production only to confirmed order and zero changeover times between products, you will require a number of future-state maps no matter how much help you get from a sensei , each a little leaner and closer to that ideal.

But you shouldn t start from scratch either.

The manufacturing world has now had lots of experience with lean manufacturing so you can begin with established principles and practices and work to adapt them to future states for your own value streams. Before we show you how to draw a future state map Part IV , let s summarize some of the most important lean principles to help you get started.

Since this material output is not yet needed, it must be handled, counted, stored, and so on -- pure muda. Defects remain hidden in the inventory queues until the downstream process finally uses the parts and discovers the problem which is by then extensive and hard to trace.

As a result, while the value-added time for producing one product is very short, the total time that product spends getting through the plant is very long. To reduce that overly long lead time from raw material to finished good you need to do more than just try to eliminate obvious waste.

Too many lean implementation efforts have been seven-waste scavenger hunts. While it is good to be aware of waste, your future state designs need to eliminate the sources, or root causes of waste in the value stream.

Once the problems of mass production can be seen in a way that reveals these root causes, your company can work at finding original solutions. Lecture 4: Overview 1. Present State Map 3. Process Improvement Strategies 4. Takt Time 5. Special type of flow chart that uses symbols known as "the language of Lean" to depict and improve the flow of inventory. Bhat, Prof. Writer Machine and Lean Thinking books Researcher on how to do lean everywhere!

Founder of the non-profit Lean Enterprise. Lance Cullen in September of Email: Learning to See Waste Everything you do in your Company is accomplished through a process.

Even the smallest activities are accomplished through processes. Order Materials Issue paychecks Setup Equipment. Appendix Lean Glossary Page 1 Andon Board A visual control device in a work area giving the current status on performance to expectations and alerting team members to emerging issues.

Batch-and- Queue. Designing a Lean Value Stream Overview The steps that you will take to create a lean value stream are 1. Select a product family done earlier 2. Identify the value stream owner done earlier 3. Connecting Assembly with Batch Processes Via Basic Pull Systems By Art Smalley Pull systems are an integral part of lean manufacturing yet they are frequently misunderstood and considered hard to implement.

A system for creating and supporting thinking. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, , 2, http: Chen 1, Ronald. Have you been unable to roll it out or just abandoned it? Most companies who begin kanban implementation struggle to finish the job.

In too many cases, the. Lessons Learned from the Toyota Way Presented by: Jeffrey K. After coming across a confusing listserv discussion about value-stream mapping and some other concepts of lean, we asked LEI Senior Advisor John Shook, co-author with Mike Rother of the Learning to See.

Achieving Basic Stability By Art Smalley Introduction Lean production has dramatically lifted the competitiveness of many manufacturing companies and the value they deliver to customers. What s more, encouraging. A3 Thinking Learning Objectives At the end of this module, you should be able to: Recognize that A3 is a way of thinking and not just a tool Use the A3 chart as a standard tool for implementing lean projects.

Lean Manufacturing What is it? MRP Even if MRP can be applied among several production environments, it has been chosen here as a preferential tool for the. What is Value-added?

What is Essential. See also: Process Walk 5 Whys Asking why repeatedly. It strikes me as funny that whenever I. Lean Terms and Definitions 5S 5 Why s A method for removing all excess materials and tools from the workplace and organizing the required items using Visual Controls such that they are easy to find,.

The 7 Wastes Muda Lean Manufacturing www. Over Production Our Value Stream Mapping Icons are made of self-sticking notes sticky notes for an easy mapping experience. Each Icon is characterized by a symbol as well as its name, so that participants who are new. LeanCor Academy: Five Tips to Achieve a Lean Manufacturing Business Executive Overview Introduction The more successful manufacturers today are those with the ability to meet customer delivery schedules while maintaining.

Lean Principles by Jerry Kilpatrick Introduction Lean operating principles began in manufacturing environments and are known by a variety of synonyms; Lean Manufacturing, Lean Production, Toyota Production. What is Lean Manufacturing? Levantar March www. Weigel November We can lick gravity, but sometimes the paperwork is overwhelming. The 7Ws Taiichi Ohno s Categories of Waste Taichi Ohno is a production engineer whose formative years were spent in the textiles division of the Toyota Corporation, and who moved to the automotive business.

Tip Sheet: Value Stream Mapping A successful project relies heavily on a clear understanding of real problems. Value stream mapping is a technique used to visualise what actually happens to a product in. Dilesh Patel, Herman. Agile similarities and differences Purpose with the material 2 This material describes the basics of Agile and Lean and the similarities and differences between.

Boyer Company, Inc. John E. Boyer, President Copyright by J. No portion of this article may be reproduced in whole. It is a key means for increasing machine. What a convoluted. Chapter 18 Production Planning and Control In any manufacturing enterprise production is the driving force to which most other functions react. This is particularly true with inventories; they exist because.

Creating a Current State Map! Creating a Future State Map! Using a Map as a basis for Tactical mplementation Planning. Seradex White Paper A newsletter for manufacturing organizations April, Using Project Management Software for Production Scheduling Frequently, we encounter organizations considering the use of project.

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Mike Rother: The Toyota Kata Practice Guide

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Tohidi H Six sigma methodology and its relationship with lean manufacturing system. Adv Environ Biol — Google Scholar 2. Ohno T Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production. Vinodh S, Aravindraj S Axiomatic modeling of lean manufacturing system. Gurumurthy A, Kodali R Design of lean manufacturing systems using value stream mapping with simulation: a case study.

Teichgraber U, Bucourt M Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

What Is Value Stream Mapping, and How Can It Help My Practice?

Liker J, Morgan M The toyota way in services: the case of lean product development. Acad Manag Perspect:5—20 Google Scholar Black JR Lean production: implementing a world-class system. Industrial Press Inc. Yang C-C, Yang K-J An integrated model of the toyota production system with total quality management and people factors. Krafcik JF Triumph of the lean production system.These order adjustments lead to order expediting on the shop floor at TWI.

The process box stops wherever processes are disconnected and the material flow stops. It is a learned skill. What s important is implementing a value-adding flow. In the pages ahead Mike Rother and John Shook explain how to create a map for each of your value streams and show how this map can teach you, your managers, engineers, production associates, schedulers, suppliers, and customers to see value, to differentiate value from waste, and to get rid of the waste.

Coaching Starter Kata If you truly understand the Improvement Kata, and then go to a Toyota, or other company that has a solid practice for continuous improvement, you will readily see the underlying patterns for problem solving and improvement. I agree with him. Instead in too many cases we find companies rushing headlong into massive muda elimination activities - kaizen offensives or continuous improvement blitzes.

Process Improvement Strategies 4.

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