# QUANTUM BY MANJIT KUMAR EBOOK

Read "Quantum Einstein, Bohr and the Great Debate About the Nature of Reality" by Manjit Kumar available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off. Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. Starred Review. With vigor and elegance, Kumar Quantum: Einstein, Bohr and the Great Debate About the Nature of Reality - Kindle edition by Manjit Kumar. Download eBook features: Highlight. EINSTEIN, BOHR AND THE GREAT DEBATE ABOUT THE NATURE OF REALITY. Part III: Titans Clash Over Reality Chapter 11 Solvay Chapter 12 Einstein Forgets Relativity Chapter 13 Quantum Reality. Instead of yielding, Einstein had spent the week attempting to show that quantum mechanics.

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The reluctant revolutionary -- The patent slave -- The golden Dane -- The quantum atom -- When Einstein met Bohr -- The prince of duality -- Spin doctors -- The. Quantum: Einstein, Bohr, and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality [ ebook] by Manjit Kumar (epub/mobi). ebook4expert. November Quantum: Einstein, Bohr, and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality (Kobo eBook) As Niels Bohr said, if you weren't shocked by quantum theory, you In this tour de force of science history, Manjit Kumar gives a.

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Preview — Quantum by Manjit Kumar. For most people, quantum theory is a byword for mysterious, impenetrable science. And yet for many years it was equally baffling for scientists themselves.

Manjit Kumar gives a dramatic and superbly-written history of this fundamental scientific revolution, and the divisive debate at its heart. For 60 years most physicists believed that quantum theory denied the very existe For most people, quantum theory is a byword for mysterious, impenetrable science.

For 60 years most physicists believed that quantum theory denied the very existence of reality itself. Yet Kumar shows how the golden age of physics ignited the greatest intellectual debate of the twentieth century. Quantum sets the science in the context of the great upheavals of the modern age.

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In the quantum pioneers nearly all hailed from upper-middle-class academic families; most were German; and their average age was But it was their irrational, romantic spirit, formed in reaction to the mechanised slaughter of the First World War that inspired their will to test science to its limits.

The essential read for anyone fascinated by this complex and thrilling story and by the band of young men at its heart. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages.

Published April 2nd by Icon Books first published March 5th More Details Original Title. Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Quantum , please sign up. Randy Gardner I found my copy at a library surplus book store. I would gladly give it to you when I finish it myself. See 1 question about Quantum…. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Quantum-Theory is a rather complicated matter of which I knew next to nothing prior to reading this book.

Manjit Kumar was able to shed at least a little light some photons if you like on the topic, and I got a glimpse on this extraordinary achievement of human mind. Spanning roughly the time between Planck's constant a Quantum-Theory is a rather complicated matter of which I knew next to nothing prior to reading this book. There's hardly any mathematics in this book and only a few diagrams. The author sets the weight on the essential leaps in developing the theory and adds some intriguing biographical and historical background on the physicists involved.

Much more interesting to me though was the Einstein-Bohr debate. Apparently Einstein has spend a lot of his energy to refute Bohr's interpretation of QM.

Alas, he failed. For scientists, this book is certainly too superficial, but I think in order to gain an outside perspective on quantum mechanics this is an excellent read. View all 21 comments. Dec 12, Max rated it it was amazing Shelves: Kumar really helps make sense of it. My notes below summarize the science that paved the way for quantum theory, the Einstein Bohr rivalry and the various takes on the Copenhagen interpretation.

Working to derive a formula to predict the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation in , Planck found that only whole increments of energy worked. He dodged the issue by saying that only the exchange of energy was quantized, not energy itself. Along came Einstein who accepted atoms as discrete matter and sources of discrete energy. Einstein employed his quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation to explain the photoelectric effect in which light precipitates the release of electrons from metals.

This was in Even in when Einstein was awarded the Noble Prize for his equation explaining the photoelectric effect, the underlying principle of light as quanta was still not widely accepted. After overcoming the implied disrespect to Newton, scientists finally accepted light as a wave and held onto that view as tenaciously as they had held onto the particle view before.

In Niels Bohr conceptualized the quantum atom. Recognizing that J. Each orbit had a specific energy level. When an electron moved from one orbit to another an exact amount of energy quantum was exchanged which resulted in unique spectral patterns. Amazingly there was no in between.

An electron left one orbit and appeared in another instantaneously. The Franck-Hertz experiment in confirmed that the energy released or absorbed was exactly the difference between the energy levels of the orbits. In Bohr refined his atomic model with the concept of electron shells.

This allowed him to predict the chemical similarities of elements in the periodic table. In , finding time after his ground shattering theory of general relativity was announced in , Einstein theorized that spontaneous emission occurred when an electron jumped to a lower energy orbit. The rub was that in his theory electrons made these jumps at random. His theory employed probabilities to determine the frequency of these jumps.

## Manjit kumar quantum epub format

Einstein, now as later, was uncomfortable with chance in physics theories. Only a particle would behave this way. Furthermore he found the recoiling electrons that the x-rays had bounced off of. Then a French prince, Louis de Broglie, setting the stage for quantum mechanics, postulated that if a wave could have the values of a particle, why not the reverse? Ascribing wave characteristics to electrons explained perfectly the available orbits for electrons in an atom.

Only those orbits that could accommodate whole or half wave lengths were physically possible. Sure enough subsequent experiments showed that electrons diffracted just like light. Wave particle duality was now established for energy and matter. In Wolfgang Pauli building on a paper by Edmund Stoner developed the exclusion principle. Stoner determined the number of possible energy states of electrons orbiting an atom. But the three quantum numbers denoting angular momentum, shape of orbit and orientation of orbit only allowed for half of the possible energy states.

Pauli developed a fourth quantum number which would later be explained as spin. This quantum spin had two states, up or down, doubling the number of allowable electrons.

It also explained the heretofore mysterious splitting of spectral lines known as the Zeeman Effect. The exclusion principle stated that no two electrons in an atom could have the same set of quantum numbers thus limiting the number of electrons. Werner Heisenberg solved a remaining problem of the quantum atom model. Even though it now explained the frequency of spectral lines, it did not explain the different intensities. Heisenberg decided to discard anything not observable, even that electrons occupied orbits.

He needed the help of Max Born who collaborated with one his students, an excellent mathematician named Pascual Jordan, to get the math to support the physical theory. This new quantum mechanics employed a strange form of matrix mathematics in which A times B does not equal B times A, but it successfully calculated spectral line intensities. In England, Cambridge student P.

The rub was picturing what the wave represented. He denied that electrons were particles at all while Heisenberg, committed to particles, opposed the wave theory, putting the two at odds. This stated that quantum mechanics could not determine both the position and momentum of a particle, specifically an electron. Heisenberg refused to imply any behavior to an electron that could not be measured. There was no assuming what happened to an electron between two measurements, thus no path at all was held to have been traveled.

Basically Heisenberg was saying classical concepts of wave, particle, position, momentum and trajectory had no meaning in the quantum world until observed.

Bohr believed that uncertainty was fundamental to the quantum nature of wave-particle duality.

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Bohr felt the electron was both a wave and a particle, but that no experiment could measure both at the same time. He called his principle complementarity. Bohr held that observer and observed could not be separated.

The way the quantum world was observed determined what was seen. Be it wave or particle, both observations were true depending on the way it was observed. Causality and regular patterns had no meaning.

The only prediction quantum mechanics could make was one of probability. No experiment could ever return the deterministic clockwork cosmos of Newton to the quantum world. There was no reality at the quantum level outside of observation.

This view became known as the Copenhagen interpretation. Einstein, while accepting that quantum mechanics was a correct and important theory, did not accept this interpretation.

It was there even when nobody was looking. At the conferences in Solvay in and Einstein offered thought experiments to show quantum mechanics was an incomplete description of reality. Bohr would parry and nothing would be resolved. Many Physicists in Germany were Jewish or had Jewish connections.

They were leaving and scattering around the world.

Einstein in published a paper with help from Princeton assistants known as the EPR paper. This thought experiment proposed measuring the momentum and position of one of a pair of entangled particles to determine the momentum and position of the other. The point was to prove the existence of the other particle independent of direct observation of it. The Copenhagen interpretation denied reality independent of observation. Bohr conceded this but claimed the particles were entwined and thus one system, that a measurement of one was a measurement of both.

A tiny radioactive substance is placed in the box. When it decays it will trigger a Geiger counter that will trigger the release of a vial of poison killing the cat. Since the event is not observed, does it happen? In the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics only a probability wave of the event exists. But Copenhagen purists would still say that the cat was both dead and alive until the wave was collapsed by observation.

The debate would dominate the minds of Bohr and Einstein over the ensuing years. Bohr last visited Einstein in Princeton in Einstein died the next year at Bohr died in at Over 30 years later Bohr was still refining his argument. In John Stewart Bell put forth a theorem to test whether any local hidden variables could be used to explain the behavior of the entangled particles in the EPR thought experiment.

In this theory all quantum states actually exist simultaneously, obviating the probability wave. This resolved one objection to the Copenhagen Interpretation: Who observed the big bang to collapse the probability wave? God, of course, is one answer. Another issue for quantum mechanics is determining the dividing line between the quantum world and the classical world where reality is the norm. The Copenhagen interpretation has lost its luster.

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View all 10 comments. Whether the science in this book is light or heavy depends on who you are. For me, the science was heavy, as my fascination with science has always been greater than my knowledge of it. I am not a scientist. That said, I loved this book.

Did I understand all the theories, experiments and discussions? But I understood enough to follow the narrative and get excited or saddened by events and to share the passion of these giants and marvel at their tenacity and their genius. Years ago, When I sta Whether the science in this book is light or heavy depends on who you are. Years ago, When I started my studies in chemistry and physics, my brother thoughtfully gave me a framed copy of the famous Solvay Conference group photo, the one mentioned in the prologue, as inspiration.More filters.

Everything in our modern world is because of these geniuses. Furthermore he found the recoiling electrons that the x-rays had bounced off of. Like a good novel, this kept me gripped to the very end thanks to a perfect balance between hard science and human interest. Quantum mechanics is the spookiest theoretical framework ever devised by man.

And yet for many years it was equally baffling for scientists themselves. Terry Pratchett. Amazingly there was no in between. Xxxxxx As the quantum theory developed, so did a great debate concerning its philosophical implications Reviews