The History of Middle Earth - reviewed by Franco Manni - J.R.R. Tolkien, The History of Middle-Earth,. HarperCollins, London, 12 volumes. THE HISTORY OF MIDDLE-EARTH. Volume The Later Silmarillion. Part One. The Legends of Aman. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. HarperCollinsPublishers. CONTENTS. Preface page x I THE TALE OF TINUVIEL. Notes and Commentary. II TURAMBAR AND THE FOALOKE. Notes and Commentary. III THE FALL OF.

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Moreover in the history of the history of Middle-earth the development was seldom by outright rejection -- far more often it was by subtle transformation in stages. HISTORY OF MIDDLE-EARTH CONTENTS Foreword I THE COTTAGE OF LOST PLAY Notes and Commentary II THE MUSIC OF THE AINUR. History Of Middle Earth pdf is available here. You can easily Download History Of Middle Earth pdf, History Of Middle Earth pdf by

When writing this passage I had forgotten that Mr Carl Hostetter, editor of the periodical Vinyar Tengwar, had pointed out in the issue no. All three differ significantly bagronk, for example, being rendered both as 'cesspool' and as 'torture chamber ' ; from which it seems clear that my father was at this time devising interpretations of the words, whatever he may have intended them to mean when he first wrote them.

I should also have noticed that the statement in the early texts of Appendix D The Calendars , pp. Lastly, after the proofs of this book had been revised I received a letter from Mr Christopher Gilson in which he referred to a brief but remarkable text associated with Appendix A that he had seen at Marquette.

This was a curious chance, for he had no knowledge of the book beyond the fact that it contained some account of the Appendices; while although I had received a copy of the text from Marquette I had passed it over without observing its significance. Preserved with other difficult and disjointed notes, it is very roughly written on a slip of paper torn from a rejected manuscript.

That manuscript can be identified as the close predecessor of the Appendix A text concerning the choice of the Half-elven which I have given on pp.

The writing on the verso reads: and his father gave him the name Aragorn, a name used in the House of the Chieftains. But Ivorwen at his naming stood by, and said 'Kingly Valour' for so that name is interpreted : 'that he shall have, but I see on his breast a green stone, and from that his true name shall come and his chief renown: for he shall be a healer and a renewer.

A large X is also written, but it is not clear whether this relates to the whole page or only to a part of it. In his reply my father said that it 'cannot contain a "tree" word', and that '"Tree-King" would have no special fitness for him'.

He continued: The names in the line of Arthedain are peculiar in several ways; and several, though Sindarin in form, are not readily interpretable. But it would need more historical records and linguistic records of Sindarin than exist sc. It is remarkable that this celebrated account of Hobbits goes so far back in the history of the writing of The Lord of the Rings: its earliest form, entitled Foreword: Concerning Hobbits, dates from the period - 9, and it was printed in The Return of the Shadow VI.

This was a good 'fair copy' manuscript, for which there is no preparatory work extant; but I noticed in my very brief account of it that my father took up a passage concerning Hobbit architecture from the chapter A Short Cut to Mushrooms see VI. Comparison with the published Prologue to The Lord of the Rings will show that while much of that original version survived, there was a great deal still to come: the entire account of the history of the Hobbits FR pp.

In order to avoid confusion with another and wholly distinct 'Foreword', given in the next chapter, I shall use the letter P in reference to the texts that ultimately led to the published Prologue, although the title Foreword: Concerning Hobbits was used in the earlier versions. My father made a typescript of this, P 2, and judging from the typewriter used I think it probable that it belonged to much the same time as P 1 - at any rate, to a fairly early period in the writing of The Lord of the Rings.

In my text of P 1 in The Return of the Shadow I ignored the changes made to the manuscript unless they seemed certainly to belong to the time of writing VI. TXT terious treasure: a magic ring' VI.

This new conclusion I give here. A part of the story as told here survived into the published Prologue, but at this stage there was no suggestion of any other version than that in The Hobbit, until the chapter Riddles in the Dark was altered in the edition of With all these changes incorporated, the typescript P 2 was a precise copy of the original version see note 7.

This ring was brought back by Bilbo from his memorable journey. He found it by what seemed like luck. He was lost for a while in the tunnels of the goblins under the Misty Mountains, and there he put his hand on it in the dark.

Trying to find his way out, he went on down to the roots of the mountains and came to a full stop. At the bottom of the tunnel was a cold lake far from the light. On an island of rock in the water lived Gollum. He was a loathsome little creature: he paddled a small boat with his large flat feet, and peered with pale luminous eyes, catching blind fish with his long fingers and eating them raw.

He ate any living thing, even goblin, if he could catch and strangle it without a fight; and he would have eaten Bilbo, if Bilbo had not had in his hand an elvish knife to serve him as a sword.

Gollum challenged the hobbit to a Riddlegame: if he asked a riddle that Bilbo could not guess, then he would eat him; but if Bilbo floored him, then he promised to give him a splendid gift.

Since he was lost in the dark, and could not go on or back, Bilbo was obliged to accept the challenge; and in the end he won the game as much by luck as by wits. It then turned out that Gollum had intended to give Bilbo a magic ring that made the wearer invisible.

He said he had got it as a birthday present long ago; but when he looked for it in his hiding-place on the island, the ring had disappeared. Not even Gollum a mean and malevolent creature dared cheat at the Riddle-game, after a fair challenge, so in recompense for the missing ring he reluctantly agreed to Bilbo's demand that he should show him the way out of the labyrinth of tunnels.

In this way the hobbit escaped and rejoined his companions: thirteen dwarves and the wizard Gandalf. TXT tunnels and that he himself had found it; but he had the sense to say nothing to Gollum. He used the ring several times later in his adventures, but nearly always to help other people. The ring had other powers besides that of making its wearer invisible.

But these were not discovered, or even suspected, until long after Bilbo had returned home and settled down again. Consequently they are not spoken of in the story of his journey. This tale is chiefly concerned with the ring, its powers and history. Bilbo, it is told, following his own account and the ending he himself devised for his memoirs before he had written most of them , 'remained very happy to the end of his days, and those were extraordinarily long.

How long, and why so long, will here be discovered. Bilbo returned to his home at BagEnd on June 22nd in his fifty-second year, having been away since April 30th 2 in the year before, and nothing very notable occurred in the Shire for another sixty years, when Mr.

Baggins began to make preparations for the celebration of his hundred and eleventh birthday. At which point the tale of the Ring begins. Years later my father took up the typescript P 2 again. He made a number of minor alterations in wording, replaced the opening paragraph, and rewrote a part of the story of Bilbo and Gollum improving the presentation of the events, and elaborating a little Bilbo's escape from the tunnels ; these need not be recorded.

But he also introduced a lengthy new passage, following the words VI. This begins 'The Hobbits of the Shire had hardly any "government" Much of the new passage survived into the final form, but there are some interesting differences. TXT they in turn had acknowledged his lordship.

But there had been no King for many ages, and even the ruins of Northworthy were covered with grass The name Northworthy for later Norbury is not found in the Lord of the Rings papers, where the earlier 'vernacular' names are the Northburg, Northbury. See p. The fourth paragraph of the section reads thus in the P 2 text: It is true that the Took family had once a certain eminence, quite apart from the fact that they were and remained numerous, wealthy, peculiar, and of great social importance.

The head of the family had formerly borne the title of The Shirking. But that title was no longer in use in Bilbo's time: it had been killed by the endless and inevitable jokes that had been made about it, in defiance of its obvious etymology. The habit went on, however, of referring to the head of the family as The Took, and of adding if required a number: as Isengrim the First.

Shirking is of course a reduction of Shire-king with shortening and in this case subsequent alteration of the vowel, in the same way as Shirriff is derived from Shire-reeve; but this was a joke that my father decided to remove - perhaps because the choice of the word 'king' by the Hobbits seemed improbable cf.

To the mention of the name 'Bounders' my father added ' as they were called unofficially '; the word 'unofficially' he subsequently removed, thus in this case retaining the joke but not drawing attention to it.

It seems to me all but certain that this new element in the text is to be associated with the emergence of the Shirriffs in the chapter The Scouring of the Shire - where the office is shown to have been long established 'before any of this began', as the Shirriff Robin Smallburrow said to Sam RK p.

The fact that the term 'Thain' had not yet emerged does not contradict this, for that came in very late see IX, , I have concluded IX. At the end of this passage on the ordering of the Shire, which as already noted p.

TXT P 2 continues with a later pencilled heading 'Tobacco' : 5 There is one thing more about these hobbits of old that must be mentioned: they smoked tobacco through pipes of clay or wood. A great deal of mystery surrounds the origin of this peculiar custom From this point the remainder of section 2 in the final form of the Prologue was achieved in P 2 with only a very few minor differences: 'Old Toby' of Longbottom was Tobias not Tobold Hornblower on which see p.

There is also a footnote to the words 'about the year in Shire-reckoning': That is about years before the events recorded in this book. Dates in the Shire were all reckoned from the legendary crossing of the Brandywine River by the brothers Marco and Cavallo. Later changed to Marcho and Blanco, these names do not appear in the narrative of The Lord of the Rings: they are found only in the further long extension to the Prologue concerning Hobbit-history FR p.

For the history of the passage on pipe-weed, which began as a lecture on the subject delivered by Merry to Theoden at the ruined gates of Isengard, see VIII. When this addition to P 2 was written the old genealogical tree of the Tooks given and discussed in VI.

The curious story of how the rewritten narrative in the chapter Riddles in the Dark came to be published in the edition of is sufficiently indicated in Letters nos.

TXT only Sir Stanley's comments on the idea. Believing that it had been rejected, he was greatly shocked and surprised when nearly three years later, in July , he received the proofs of a new edition with the rewriting incorporated.

But he accepted the fait accompli. Beyond remarking that the full correspondence makes it very clear how, and how naturally, the misunderstandings on both sides that led to this result arose, there is no need to say any more about it here: for the present purpose its significance. In fact, I believe it to belong to see pp. From the revised and extended text P 2, now in need of a successor, my father made a new typescript P 3.

This was again an uncharacteristically exact copy. It received a good deal of correction, in the earlier part only, but these corrections were restricted to minor alterations of wording and a few other details, such as the change of 'Northworthy' to 'Norbury' and of the date of Bilbo's departure with Gandalf and the Dwarves to April 28th note 2.

From this in turn an amanuensis typescript was made P 4 , but this my father barely touched. These texts both bore the original title, Foreword, Concerning Hobbits. The next stage was a very rough manuscript, P 5, without title but with Concerning Hobbits added later , and without either the section on pipe-weed or that on the story of Bilbo and Gollum, which while constantly moving the detail of expression further towards the final form held still to the original structure, and retained such features as the Shirking.

P1 VI. For one thing, they spoke a very similar language or languages , and liked or disliked much the same things as we used to.

What exactly the relationship is would be difficult to say. To answer that question one would have to re-discover a great deal of the now wholly lost history and legends of the Earliest Days; and that is not likely to happen, for only the Elves preserve any traditions about the Earliest Days, and their traditions are mostly about themselves - not unnaturally: the Elves were much the most important people of those times.

P2 as revised. For one thing, they spoke a very similar language or languages , and liked and disliked much the same things as we used to. To answer that question one would have to rediscover much that is now lost and forgotten for ever. Only the Elves now preserve traditions of the Elder Days, and even their traditions are incomplete, being concerned chiefly with Elves. Yet plainly they are relatives of ours: far nearer to us than are Elves, or even Dwarves. They spoke the languages of Men, and they liked and disliked much the same things as we once did.

What exactly our relationship was in the beginning can, however, no longer be told. The answer to that question lies in the Elder Days that are now lost and forgotten for ever. Only the Elves preserve still any traditions of that vanished time, but these are concerned mostly with their own affairs. To the manuscript P 5, however, my father added, at the time of writing, much new material. One of these passages was that concerning the martial qualities of the Hobbits, or lack of them, the existence of arms in the Shire and here the word mathom first appears in the texts of the Prologue , and the 'curious toughness' of Hobbit character.

This was already fairly close to the published form FR pp.

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But at this period there was no living memory of any serious assault on the borders of the Shire. Even the weathers were milder The original text of the chapter The Scouring of the Shire had no reference to the Battle of Greenfields: 'So ended the fierce battle of Bywater, the only battle ever fought in the Shire' IX. In the second text IX. It seems a good guess that as with the passage concerning the Shirriffs, p. It is convenient here, before turning to the rest of the new material that came in with the manuscript P 5, to notice a text written on two small slips and attached to the amanuensis typescript P 4.

This is the origin of the passage concerning the founding of the Shire in the published Prologue FR pp. They crossed by the great stone bridge that had been built in the days of the power of the realm of Arthedain; for they had no boats. After their own manner and language they later changed the name to Brandywine. All that was demanded of the 'Little People' was 1 to keep the laws of Arthedain; 2 to keep the Bridge and all other bridges in repair; 3 to allow the king to hunt still in the woods and moors thrice a year.

For the country had once been a royal park and hunting ground. After the crossing the L[ittle] P[eople] settled down and almost disappeared from history. They took some part as allies of the king in the wars of Angmar sending bowmen to battle , but after the disappearance of the realm and of Angmar they lived mostly at peace. Their last battle was against Orcs Greenfields S. For the land into which they had come, though now long deserted, had been richly tilled in days of yore, and there the kings had once had many farms, cornlands, vineyards, and woods.

This land they called the Shire [struck out: as distinct from the Old Home at Bree ], which in their language meant an ordered district of government and business - the business of growing food and eating it and living in comparative peace and content. This name Shire served to distinguish it from the wilder lands eastward, which became more and more desolate, all the way back to the dreadful Mountains over which according to their own tales their people had long ago wandered westward; also from the smaller country, the Oldhome at Bree, where they first settled - but not by themselves: for Bree they shared with the Bree-men.

TXT own records and legends. They called themselves Hobbits. Most other peoples called them Halflings or words of similar meaning in various languages , when they knew of them or heard rumour of them. For they existed now only in the Shire, Bree, and [? And it is said that there were still a few 'wild hobbits' in the eaves of Mirkwood west and east of the Forest. Hobbit appears to be a 'corruption' or shortening of older holbytla 'hole dweller'. Both peoples originally came from the lands of the upper Anduin.

Returning briefly to the manuscript P 5, I have not yet mentioned that in this text, as originally written, the old passage in P 1 concerning the Hobbits of the Marish 'the hobbit-breed was not quite pure', 'no pure-bred hobbit had a beard', VI.

But they were Stoors in the most of their blood, as was shown by the down that some grew on their chins. However, the matter of these breeds and the Shire-lore about them we must leave aside for the moment. In the published Prologue this passage apart of course from the last sentence comes after the account of the 'three breeds' FR p. But a further new passage was added on a separate page of the P 5 manuscript, corresponding to that in FR pp.

TXT that in the final form, lacking only the statement that many of the Stoors 'long dwelt between Tharbad and the borders of Dunland before they moved north again', and still placing the Stoors before the Harfoots see ibid. The word smial s first occurs, in the texts of the Prologue, in P 5. The text was not yet divided into four numbered sections, though the final ordering and succession of the parts was now reached; and the concluding section, on the finding of the Ring, was still the original story see p.

After the reference to Gollum's saying that he had got the Ring as a birthday present long ago there follows: Bilbo might indeed have wondered how that could be, and still more why Gollum should be willing to give such a treasure away, if his case had been less desperate, and if in fact Gollum had ever given him the present.

He did not, for when he returned to his island to fetch it the Ring was not to be found. This part then concludes much as in P 2, with the addition of a passage about Bilbo's secrecy concerning the Ring, and his disposal of Sting and the coat of mail; ending 'And the years passed, while he wrote in his leisurely fashion the story of his journey.

In this text the Battle of Greenfields, with the date S. TXT was preserved with little material change as the conclusion of the Foreword to the First Edition of This begins with the remarks about the map of the Shire now with the addition 'besides other maps of wider and more distant countries' and the 'abridged family-trees' that go back to P 1 VI.

For those who are curious and like such lore some account is given in an appendix of the languages, the alphabets, and the calendars that were used in the Westlands in the Third Age of Middle-earth. But such lore is not necessary, and those who do not need it, or desire it, may neglect it, and even the names they may pronounce as they will. Some care has been given to the translation of their spelling from the original alphabets, and some notes on the sounds that are intended are offered.

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But not all are interested in such matters, and many who are not may still find the account of these great and valiant deeds worth the reading. It was in that hope that this long labour was undertaken; for it has required several years to translate, select, and arrange the matter of the Red Book of Westmarch in the form in which it is now presented to Men of a later Age, one no less darkling and ominous than were the great years and of the Shire long ago.

To this my father made the corrections and additions that brought the Prologue to its final form many being made to its exemplar P 6 as well ; and it was on this typescript that he rejected the original tale of Bilbo's encounter with Gollum and introduced the 'true tale' FR pp.

The story is told here on appended pages in exactly its form in the published Prologue, ending with Gollum's cry 'Thief, thief! We hates it for ever! In one of these the original story, now become Bilbo's untrue version, is not mentioned at all, and the text moves at once from Gollum's cry of hatred to 'Of Bilbo's later adventures little more need be said here'.

But my father was in doubt, whether or not to say anything in the Prologue about Bilbo's doctored accounts of the events; for at the point where the actual story ends 'We hates it for ever! In this 'Note' which was the origin of the passage concerning the two versions in FR p. TXT nation of the difference in the story as told in the two editions of The Hobbit is probably seen at its emergence. He began: 'This is not the story as Bilbo first told it to his companions and to Gandalf, or indeed as he first set it down in his book' my italics , but struck out the words following 'Gandalf'; he then went on to say that though Bilbo set down the false story in his memoirs, and 'so it probably appeared in the original Red Book', nonetheless 'many copies contain the true account alone or as an alternative , derived, no doubt, from notes made by Frodo or Samwise, both of whom knew the truth.

The explanation of this apparently very obscure comment is as follows. On the text preceding the one to which he referred, that is to say the penultimate typescript, he had introduced a long rider 16 after Gandalf's words FR p. I already suspected much of it.

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Indeed I already suspected something that I am sure has never occurred to you: Bilbo's story was not true. Bilbo's reward for winning was merely to be shown a way out of the tunnels. There was no question of a present, least of all of giving away his "precious". Gollum confesses that he went back to his island to get it, simply so as to kill Bilbo in safety, for he was hungry and angry.

But as Bilbo had already picked up the ring, he escaped, and the last Gollum knew of him was when he crept up behind and jumped over him in the dark.

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That is much more like Gollum! But unlike Bilbo with the ring? No, I am afraid not. You see, half-unknown to himself he was trying to strengthen his claim to be its rightful owner: it was a present, a prize he had won. Much like Gollum and his "birthdaypresent". The two were more alike than you will admit. And both their tales were improbable and hobbitlike. TXT never. You are a hobbit yourself or you would have doubted the tale, as I did at once.

So I let it be, for our friendship's sake. His touchiness was proof enough for me. I guessed then that the ring had an unwholesome power over its keeper that set to work quickly. Yes, even on Bilbo the desire for ownership had gripped at once, and went on growing. But fortunately it stayed at that, and he took little other harm. For he got the ring blamelessly.

He did not steal it; he found it, and it was quite impossible to give it back: Gollum would have killed him at once. He paid for it, you might say, with mercy, and gave Gollum his life at great risk.

And so in the end he got rid of the thing, just in time. When I last saw him, he was still filled with it, whining that he was tricked and ill-used. In the following final typescript of the chapter the rider is not present; but my father added a note at this point 'Take in rider' - and then struck it out.

It was clearly at this time that he wrote the note referred to above, 'Alternative, if the only reference to this is made in Chapter II': he meant, if no more was to be said of the matter in Chapter H than Gandalf's words 'I put the fear of fire on him, and wrung the true story out of him, bit by bit, with much snivelling and snarling' - i.

If that rider was to be rejected, then a passage on the subject must be given in the Prologue. This was ultimately his decision; and the second of the two texts appended to P 6 is exactly as it stands in the published Prologue, p.

In one of his copies of the First Edition my father noted: 'Here should be inserted Note on the Shire Records'; but he wrote against this later: 'I have decided against this. It belongs to Preface to The Silmarillion.

TXT I have given this rather long account of the history of the Prologue, because it is one of the best-known of my father's writings, the primary source for knowledge of the Hobbits, on which he expended much thought and care; and also because it seems of special interest to see how it evolved. I will here briefly recapitulate some elements that seem to me to emerge from this history. While it is not strictly demonstrable, I think it extremely likely that my father returned after many years to the original form of the Prologue or Foreword as he still called it about the time, or soon after it, when he was writing the long first draft that went from Many Partings through Homeward Bound and The Scouring of the Shire to The Grey Havens, that is to say in the summer of IX.

I have pointed to a number of indications that this was so. On the one hand, we see the appearance, at successive stages in the writing of the Prologue, of the Shirriffs in the revision of the old P 2 text p. On the other hand, all these first appear in The Scouring of the Shire - and in two cases, the Battle of Greenfields and the title of Thain, they were absent from the original draft of that chapter.

I believe that my father's return to the Shire at the end of The Lord of the Rings provided the impulse for his renewed work on the Prologue and its subsequent extension by stages. Moreover it is seen from the history of this text how much of the account of Hobbits and their origins actually emerged after the narrative of The Lord of the Rings was completed - most notably, perhaps, the idea of their division into Harfoots, Stoors, and Fallohides, which entered from the earliest version of the appendix on languages p.

Some of these new elements were then introduced into the existing narrative, such as smials into the chapter Treebeard p. Successive stages in the development of the Prologue were accompanied, of course, by development in the Appendices, as is seen from references to the languages and to dates, and from such points as the naming of Argeleb II as the king who granted possession of the Shire to the Hobbits p.

TXT dated, at the latest, to before July The Hobbits' antipathy to vessels and water, and to swimming in it, was the only actual addition. The date April 30th was corrected to April 28th on the text P 3 p- 7.

Northworthy: the Old English word, wordig were common elements in place-names, with the same general meaning as tun -ton , an enclosed dwelling-place. The fiction of 'translation' from the 'true' Hobbit language the Common Speech was inimical to puns in any case, good though this one was.. The extension to P 2 on the ordering of the Shire was a typescript, but that on pipe-weed was a manuscript written on slips.

My father inserted them into P 2 as a unit, but they clearly originated separately: see note 6. It is in fact quite possible that the account of 'pipe-weed' in the long addition to P 2 does go back so early, seeing that it was certainly written quite independently of the first part of the addition, on the ordering of the Shire see note 5.

Similarly the statement in P 1 VI. It was corrected back to Bandobras in the revision. In P 5 the name Lithe entered as my father wrote, changing 'at Midsummer' to 'at the Lithe that is Midsummer '. The name Luyde for the month of March is found once elsewhere, a comparative calendar of Hobbit and modern dates written on the back of a page of the earliest text of the Appendix on Calendars see p.

Above Luyde here my father wrote a name beginning Re which is certainly not as it stands Rethe, the later Hobbit name of March, but must be taken as an ill-written form of that name. On holbytla translated 'hole dweller' see p. Now that language was nearly the same as the language of the ancestors of the Rohirrim'.

The second figure of the date is slightly uncertain, but it looks much more like a '3' than a '1'. The significant changes made in the Second Edition were few.

Tolkien, J R R - The History of Middle-Earth - 12

On FR p. Once again, editor Christopher Tolkien satisfies… More. Book 6. The Return of the Shadow: In this sixth volume of The History of Middle-ear… More. Shelve The Return of the Shadow: Book 7. The Treason of Isengard: The Treason of Isengard is the seventh volume in… More. Shelve The Treason of Isengard: Book 8. The War of the Ring by J.

Shelve The War of the Ring. Book 9. Sauron Defeated: In the first part of Sauron Defeated, Christopher… More.

Shelve Sauron Defeated: Book Morgoth's Ring by J. Shelve Morgoth's Ring. The War of the Jewels by J. In volumes ten and eleven of The History of Middl… More. Shelve The War of the Jewels. The Peoples of Middle-earth by J. When J.Whatever may be thought of this matter, the result, which I by no means foresaw, has been to add a further dimension of obscurity to 'The Silmarillion', in that uncertainty about the age of the work, whether it is to be regarded as 'early' or 'late' or in what proportions, and about the degree of editorial intrusion and manipulation or even invention , is a stumbling-block and a source of much misapprehension.

I have a mind to send him down to Mandos for his pertness! That was in the days before hearing the lament of the world Inwe led them forth to the lands of Men: The 'error' presumably lies in the holding of such an expectation, if the stories were told, not in the telling of the stories at all; and it is apparent that Professor Shippey sees my father as wondering, in , whether he should or should not put pen to paper, for he expands the words of the letter, 'I am doubtful myself about the undertaking', to mean 'the undertaking to write The Silmarillion'.

And when Vaire had spoken the words of welcome, and Lindo had asked of him his name and whence he came and whither he might be seeking, and he had named himself the Stranger and said that he came from the Great Lands,' and that he was seeking whitherso his desire for travel led him, then was the evening meal set out in the great hall and Eriol bidden thereto.

But it makes the darkness seem heavier, thinking of all those lamps.

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