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General Design Issues for Offshore Foundations and Relevant International Codes and Guidelines
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API RP 7G-2 (R)
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Search results dastarkhwab Dalda Ka Dastarkhwan recipes in urdu. Dalda ka Dastarkhawan Masala Channel Tags: Both cooking experts teach that how you can prepare foods more delicious and appetizing. Typical representation of wave loads is based on the three parameters: wave period, wave height, and mean water depth Figure 1 a.
The velocity along the water depth is assigned a nonlinear profile to account for the appropriate experimentally observed conditions, as can be seen in Figure 1 b.
Drag and inertial force profiles are also representative of realistic situations. Figure 1 c schematically depicts the different wave and current actions and effects on an offshore pole with a circular cross-section of diameter. Figure 1: Schematic representation of offshore loads a sea current wave profile adopted from [ 47 ] ; b velocity profile adopted from [ 47 ] ; c hydrodynamic loads adopted from [ 48 ].
In such mathematical procedures, wave and current kinematic fields are often modeled using 5th-order Stokes wave theory. These forces account for the inertial effects through the mass coefficient and the hydrodynamic drag via the coefficients [ 47 ].
The used values for this research are adopted from the American Petroleum Institute API standards [ 1 , 2 ] and will be introduced in Section 4. Specifics and more details of quantifying such forces can be found elsewhere [ 4 , 47 — 49 ]. Although the forces induced by ocean waves on platform are dynamic in nature, it is the common practice to design by static approaches. This is deemed a reasonable approximation especially for rigid offshore structures submerged in shallow to intermediate water levels.
In such cases, static loading conditions assumption will no longer be appropriate. Current Loads Waves induce orbital particle motion through the matter in which they travel; such orbits are typically closed but may undergo minor forward drift resulting from wind-surface interaction effects. So, in essence, currents are produced due to wave kinetic energy.
If a current coincides with a wave propagation path or direction, the wave length is typically elongated [ 1 , 48 ]. Wind Loads Atmospheric temperature and pressure gradients provide wind with ample kinetic energy.
As obstacles are placed in the path of this kinetic energy, some or all of it is converted into potential energy due to path deflection or obstruction and discontinuation. The generated potential energy is manifested through differential pressures on the obstacle body.
The resulting pressures are influenced by many factors such as the obstacle shape, orientation in space, and contact area, as well as the wind speed and angle of approach.
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Wind-induced forces are highly dynamic in nature, but often times, for design purposes, it is deemed appropriate to represent them by equivalent static pressures. Land-based structures approaches can be adopted for representing wind loads on offshore structures with proper adjustments accounting for open ocean surface roughness lower category of surface roughness. The lesser roughness produces lower levels of turbulence than would be produced on land; this is translated into a slower rate of variation with height.
That is, at any given height, the storm conditions are more severe and produce higher wind speeds in offshore locations as compared to onshore.
An illustrative schematic is provided in Figure 2. Figure 2: Variation of mean wind speed with height adopted from [ 4 ]. Earthquake Loads As the ground shakes under a structure during a seismic event, inertial forces are generated within the structure.
During that oscillatory vibrational movement, other forces are engaged as well, namely, dissipative forces damping and restoring forces. The interaction between all these forces to maintain dynamic equilibrium gives rise to complex structural response. Being an extreme event, seismic activity often involves high structural response demands where inelastic and nonlinear response is to be expected, thus adding to the already complex interactive loading situation in an offshore site. Luckily, significant seismic events are not very frequent and require relatively a long time to build up store strain energy.
This warrants separate nonsimultaneous consideration of earthquake loads from other loads for offshore structures.
At offshore sites, tidal waves may or may not require special attention depending on the specific site conditions. Tidal waves travel with great velocities at sea but with small amplitude wave height as large bodies of water are displaced during an earthquake.
It is only as these waves approach the shoreline that they attain huge amplitudes due to the shallow depths of the seabed. These scenarios are considered on site-specific basis and require special seismic hazard studies prior to any design efforts. The authors are not aware of any specific tidal wave design codes for offshore structures.
When seismic loads are deemed significant to control the offshore structural design either partially or entirely, equivalent static representations are often utilized. This is very much similar to design considerations of on-land sites. If the offshore structure under consideration is irregular or complex in geometry, dynamic linear or otherwise nonlinear response needs to be properly modeled. The details of the used design code, design loads, design load combinations, and so forth are specified in Section 4.
Conventional GA optimization begins with a randomly generated population of solution alternatives population size using a uniform probability distribution; a combination of variables comprises each solution of the GA having its own fitness value.
Low yielding solution alternatives would have better fitness while they maintain the problem constraints satisfied. A fitness value is allocated to each solution is computed for all the solutions in the initial population. During reproduction, better fit designs are selected, copied, and placed into a pool allowing each design to mate and reproduce.
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The selection method used in this study is the roulette wheel due to its simplicity and popularity. One prominent advantage of the GA optimization is its inherent resilience against converging to local optima rather than global optima.Globally, some inspection standards apply depending on customer requirements in different drilling areas. In these studies, the focus is alternative structural layout for wind turbine blades with the aim of improving its design, minimizing weight, and, ultimately, wind energy cost reduction e.
The side boundary was located 10 m from the center of the pile and fixed in the x and y directions against translation. Both and will minimize the probability of unfit solutions reappearing in subsequent generations and trimmed solution domains by penalizing them with proportional severity to their excessive values above unity.
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The design problem involves complex least-weight topology as well as member size optimizations. Serum Analysis Centre Private Limited.