photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. The late Sylvia Chalker was the author of several grammar books, including Current English Oxford Practice Grammar is for students of English at a middle or. Shepherding_a_Childs_Heart_-_Tripp,computerescue.info Shepherding a Child\'s Heart. My books. John Eastwood -- Oxford Practice Grammar with Answers.
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Oxford English Grammar: the advanced guide answer book book. Use the search function (ctrl + f) in this PDF to find specific page references. need from a grammar book. The author would also like to thank: Stewart Melluish , David Lott and Helen Ward of. Oxford University Press for their expertise and. Free download or read online An English tense a beautiful English grammar pdf book special download free Teacher's Guides for each level of.
The semantic difference between the two classes is clear enough too. Some nouns, e. Thus, stone can be viewed as the non-count material constituting the entity — a stone — which can be picked up from a pile of stones and individually thrown.
Nouns with dual class membership often manifest considerable difference in meaning; this corresponds broadly to concreteness or particularization in the count usage and abstractness or generaliza- tion in the non-count usage. Names of substances can also function as count nouns, singular and plural, when they refer to a kind of substance or a part of a whole, as in download me a coffee i.
Expressions like two coffees, two butters are considered to be informal. With toponyms, there is a tendency to use proper nouns, not adjec- tives, attributively: Paris girls, California wines. The appositive can be close: This is Anthony Brewster, an Englishman.
As adverbial modifiers, nouns are chiefly parts of prepositional phrases: She sat quietly at the table, a little dazed.
After dinner we had coffee in the library. Andrew, where are you? How do you do, Miss Wigg. Common nouns in address take no article: Good night, mother. Operator, could you put through a call to New York, please? The Category of Number The English number system comprises singular, which denotes one thing, person, idea, etc. Semantically, as some linguists point out, the ques- tion of enumeration does not seem to be a very important one.
More important is, perhaps, the need to distinguish between individual or discrete and mass or non-discrete objects. This is a distinction that English makes quite clearly by means of the category of count- ability, with the noun classes of countables and uncountables, or count and mass. In American English -ize is the preferred spelling. Ccunt Ncn-ccunt Do mc u juvour.
Ncvcr mcntion his numc.
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Hc woulJ Jo unything to jinJ juvour in your cycs. Shc hus huJ u gooJ Jcul oj cxpcricncc in this kinJ oj work. Shc wus u hcuuty in hcr youth. Shc huJ hcuuty in hcr youth. Will you givc mc u light, plcusc? All plunts nccJ light. Os] or [tru: The voiceless [s] in house becomes [z] in the plu- ral: Some plural forms create significant spelling difficulties. When a noun ends in the letter -y preceded by a consonant letter, -y is changed into -i and -es is added: Proper names retain -y in the plural form: Mary — Marys, Kennedy — the Kennedys.
If the final -y is preceded by a vowel it remains unchanged and only -s is added: When a noun ends in -s, -ss, -ch and -x, the inflection -es is add- ed: Piano, photo, solo, kilo have plurals in -s: With some nouns plurals ending in -os and -oes are equally possi- ble: It also applies to archipelago, banjo, buffalo, commando, tornado, volcano.
When the final -o is preceded by a vowel, only -s is added: The following nouns ending in the voiceless fricative [B] have voiced plurals spelt -ves: Voiceless plurals are found with: Both voiced and voiceless plurals are possible with: Irregular Plural A number of nouns form their plural by means of vowel mutation: The plural ending -men occurs in words like: These do not form pairs in pronunciation distinguishing between singular and plu- ral, while with woman — women the pronunciation differs in both syllables: The plural is regular in: Germans, Romans, etc.
The -en plural occurs in three nouns: Similarly, count nouns that refer to animals may function as mass nouns to indicate the meat; we find not merely familiar usages such as chicken, rabbit, fish but can also freely form mass nouns elephant, crocodile, etc. In many cases this type of distinc- tion between count and mass is achieved by separate lexical items: A word normally used as a count noun, i. There are corresponding count nouns for some non-count nouns: Variable Nouns Regular Plural English count nouns have two forms, singular and plural.
The vast majority of nouns occur with either singular or plural number, and normally have a plural form which is built up by means of the inflec- tion, or ending, -s: This is the regular plural. In pronunciation, the voiceless [s] is added to any base singular form ending in any voiceless sound except a sibilant: The voiced [z] is added to any base ending in any voiced sound except a sibilant: The syllable [iz] is added to any base ending in a sibilant: Singular nouns ending in the voiceless fricative -th have a regu- lar plural form if there is a consonant before the -th: In several cases there are both [s] and [z] plu- rals: Latin nouns in -us.
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The foreign plural in -i pronounced as [ai] or [i: Only regular plural -uses: Both plurals: The plural forms of corpus and genus are corpora and genera. Latin nouns in -um. Usually foreign plural in -a, pronounced [o]: Only regular plural: Both plurals, normally regular: The plurals media with reference to press and radio and strata with reference to society are sometimes used informally as singular. The technical singular datum is rather rare while data is used both as a mass noun and as count noun plural: The results of the experiment are still uncertain: Latin nouns in -a.
Only foreign plural in -ae pronounced as [ai] or [i: Only regular plural form in -s: Formulas is being increasingly adopted, with formulae [-i: Nouns of Greek origin may also have foreign plurals only: Informal- ly, criteria and phenomena are sometimes used as singulars. French nouns ending in -eau, pronounced [ou] retain their origi- nal plural, e. Invariable Nouns Unlike variable nouns occurring with both singular and plural number, invariable nouns are used only in the singular or only in the plural.
The singular uncountable nouns, usually referred to as singu- The noun penny has two plural forms: Tenpence may refer to one silver coin or to ten individual pennies, i. Zero Plural Some nouns have identical forms for both singular and plural. Thus, there is no separate plural form for nouns denoting certain animals, birds and fish: Thus, it is possible to say That is a deer, a sheep, etc.
This sheep looks small. All these sheep are mine. Both regular and zero plural is used with antelope, reindeer, fish, flounder, herring. The zero plural is more common in contexts of hunt- ing We caught only a few fish , whereas the regular plural form is used to denote different individuals or species: The Plural of Compound Nouns Compounds consisting of two or more elements form the plural in various ways. The most usual one is to make the final element plural: So also: In a number of compounds the first element is made plural: When the first component is man or woman, the plural is expressed in both the first and last element: The first component is always singular in: Darts is a traditional English game which presumably developed from archery.
Some proper nouns: The United States has immense mineral wealth. There are a number of nouns ending in -s used as singular with reference to one unit, or as plural with reference to more than one: Pluralia Tantum A number of nouns in English occur in the plural only.
To this group belong the following nouns. Nouns denoting articles of dress, tools and instruments consist- ing of two equal parts: These are called summation plurals and are used with a plural verb or in the construction a pair of and may be preced- ed by the plural demonstrative: These trousers are too long for me, give me another pair, please. Is there a decent pair of scissors in this house?
Miscellaneous nouns ending in -s used only with a plural verb, not with a numeral. In some cases, however, there are also forms without -s with different meaning and use: Singularia tantum Singular invariable nouns occur in the singular only.
The Grammar Tree Teaching Guide 2
Here belong non-count nouns, concrete gold, furniture, iron, bread, cheese, grass, oil, wine, tea, coffee, etc. It should be not- ed that virtually all non-count nouns denoting substances can be treat- ed as count nouns when used to distinguish between classes of ob- jects: There are several French wines available.
Special attention should be paid to invariable nouns ending in -s used as singular only with a singular verb. The noun news: This is very good news. Bad news travels fast. No news is good news. Names of some diseases and abnormal states of body and mind: Measles is a catching disease while rickets is not.
Names of sciences and subject names in -ics: Ethics is a science of moral principles and rules of conduct. When a word of this type is not used to refer directly to a disci- pline of study, it can take a plural verb and be preceded by a plural demonstrative: The acoustics in this room are far from perfect.
These statistics are unreliable. Names of some games: A number of collective nouns take as pronoun substitutes either singular it or plural they without change of number in the noun, i. Modern English prescriptive grammar books specifically recom- mend consistent usage within the same sentence or two. Our team plays best on its own ground singular and Our team play best on their own ground plural.
Among collective nouns of this type, there are many denoting classes, social groups or referring to a group of people having a spe- cial relationship with one another, or brought together for a particu- lar reason. Three subclasses may be distinguished here: In sentences with collective nouns, the choice between singular and plural verbs is based on a difference in attitude, i.
Thus, the singular must be used in sentences like: The audience was enormous where the non- personal collectivity of the group is stressed.
The plural is more likely in sentences like: The audience were enjoying every minute of it 3. Distributive Plural. To talk about several people each doing the same thing, English prefers a plural noun for the repeated idea; plural forms are almost always used in this case with possessives: The students should hand in their essays now.
Eighty-six people lost their lives in the air-crash. Repeated Events. In descriptions of repeated single events, singular and plural nouns are both possible.
When no details are given, plural nouns are more natural: She often gets headaches. When details of the time or situation are given, singular nouns are often used: To refer to the time of repeated events, both singular and plural forms are com- monly used: Note the difference: How much do you pay for Come round to my lodgings board and lodging?
They denote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. This group contains both count army, group, class, etc. Often a special group noun is used with names of certain kinds of objects: Collective nouns fall under the following sub-groups. Nouns used in the singular only denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: They take singular pronoun substi- tutes and the verb of a sentence is in the singular: The autumn foliage is beautiful.
Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for cultivating land. Nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning un- marked plurals: These nouns take plural pronoun substitutes and occur with a plural verb: These cattle are on the way to the market. The poultry are in the yard. Vermin are harmful animals or insects.
Reference to individual members of the group is made thus: With other proper names ending in -s there is vacillation both in pronunciation and spelling, but most commonly the spelling is the apostrophe only while the pronunciation is [iz].
The Use of the Genitive The genitive case is used to express a variety of ideas: In- stead, the noun is modified by an of-phrase: Note the parallel structures: Generalizations and Rules.
In generalizations and rules, singular and plural nouns are both possible: A present participle is used in a progressive verb form.
Present participles are used in progressive verb forms. Mixtures of singular and plural forms are possible: Subjects agree with their verb.
The Category of Case The category of case expresses relations between objects and phe- nomena denoted by nouns in a sentence. In English the category of case has become the subject of lively controversy in linguistics. It has been discussed extensively by scho- lars, and the opinions on this subject differ widely.
The widely accepted view is that English nouns have two cases. Another view is that English has more than two cases. Thus, in accordance with the theory of prepositional cases, combinations of nouns with prepositions in certain object and attributive collocations are treated as morphological case forms, e.
Obviously, on this interpretation the number of cases in English would become indefi- nitely large, which would mean abandoning a morphologically based conception of case and would lead to a confusion between morpho- logical and syntactic phenomena.
A third view is that there are no cases at all in the English noun system. This viewpoint presents the English noun as having completely lost the category of case in the course of its historical development. On this view, the form called the genitive case by force of tradition, would be, in fact, a combination of a noun with a postpositional particle.
The present review will proceed from the assumption that the English noun has a two-case system: It is pronounced as [I] after any voiceless sound except a sibilant: He has a heart of gold. She rules her family with a rod of iron. A few pairs of nouns and adjectives are used as modifiers with different meanings; while the noun simply names the material some- thing is made of, the adjective has a metaphorical meaning: The meaning and functions of the genitive case require special consideration.
The Dependent Genitive A noun in the genitive case generally precedes another noun which is its head word. This is called the dependent genitive; the actual rela- tion between the notions expressed by the two nouns largely depends on their lexical meaning.
The dependent genitive may be of two kinds. The specifying genitive denotes a particular person or thing. It has the following meanings: With proper names, however, the geni- tive case is the rule: The genitive case is preferred for the subject-verb relation, and the of-phrase for the verb-object relation: Note that for words like top, bottom, front, back, side, edge, inside, outside, beginning, middle, end, part, the of-structure is usually preferred: There are, however, a number of common exceptions: The of-structure can refer to something that is used by a person or animal; the first noun refers to the user: British and American English sometimes differ.
In older English, the of-structure was more common in this case e. However, certain linguists find this interpretation doubtful. The independent genitive is typical of expressions relating to pre- mises or establishments.
It is important, how- ever, that hotel room where Andrew could only be staying not living is excluded. Ellipsis is much more evident in sentences like: The noun in the genitive case must be both definite and personal while the head noun must have indefinite reference: The genitive case is common in headlines for reasons of brevity; it also gives prominence to the noun modified.
The descriptive classifying genitive refers to a whole class of similar objects: Unlike the specifying genitive, the descriptive genitive cannot be replaced by an of-phrase. Only the context will show what is meant; outside the context both interpretations would be equally justified.
Various pat- terns can be found in this construction. Other examples include: The group genitive is not normally acceptable after a clause, though in colloquial use one may hear examples like: Such constructions may not be fre- quent but they do occur.
The Independent Genitive A noun in the genitive case may be used without a head word. This is called the independent genitive, or the genitive with ellipsis: I met a handsome student and he… I met a beautiful student and she… When there is no need to make a distinction of sex, the masculine reference pronoun is generally used.
This is the case when such nouns are used generically and neither sex is relevant: The artist, painter, poet, or musician, by his decoration, sub- lime or beautiful, satisfies the aesthetic sense; he lays be- fore you also the greater gift of himself. However, such usage is regarded as sexist by many people and there is a tendency to avoid sex indicators in contexts of this type as marks of masculine bias in Modern English.
What is new to the discourse is not necessarily new to the hear- er; he or she may already have prior knowledge to the entity in question. Anyone who wants to write non-sexist English will need to have their wits about them. Other ways of expressing male or female reference are: Lady is used out of exaggerated polite- ness; female is used in an official, scientific or clinical context.
Gen- erally speaking, this dual class is on the increase, but the expecta- tion that a given activity is largely male or female determines the frequent use of sex markers: There is a marked preference for gender specified reference.
A mother is not likely to refer to her baby as it, but it is quite possible for somebody who is not emotionally involved with the child, especially when the sex is unknown or unimportant.
The double genitive is obligatory when the speaker wishes to use several modifiers including a, this, that, these, those in the same noun phrase: Gender English makes very few gender distinctions.
The Pro- noun. Nouns, adjectives and articles have no gender distinctions, although in a small number of words the feminine suffix -ess marks a noun having female reference. The category of gender is chiefly ex- pressed in English by obligatory correlation of nouns with the third person pronouns.
These serve as specific gender classifiers of nouns. Since nouns have no grammatical gender, the choice of pronoun sub- stitutes he, she and it is based on natural distinctions of meaning. The choice between he or she, for example, is almost entirely deter- mined by sex.
Thus, he refers to a man or a male animal; she — to a woman or a female animal; it — to an inanimate object or an animal which is not regarded as either male or female; the plural pronoun they is not gender specific. The pattern of pronoun substitution is determined by the lexical meaning of the noun. Animate personal nouns may refer to males or females. Some of them are morphologically marked for gender: Steward and stewardess are being re- placed by other terms such as flight attendant.
Some optional feminine forms poetess, authoress are now rare, being replaced by the dual gender forms poet, author. A mayor can be a man or a woman; in Britain a mayoress is the wife of a male mayor. Others are morphologically unmarked for gender and have no overt marking that suggests morphological correspondence be- tween masculine and feminine: Animate personal nouns may refer to both male or female. Here belong artist, cook, doctor, enemy, fool, foreigner, friend, guest, musi- cian, neighbour, parent, person, servant, student, teacher, writer, etc.
The proud owner of a sports car may refer to it as she or perhaps he if the owner is female. With names of countries the pattern of pronoun substitution de- pends on their meaning. As geographical units they are treated as inanimate nouns: Looking at the map we see France here. It is one of the largest countries in Europe. As political, economic or cultural units the names of countries of- ten take a feminine reference pronoun: France has been able to increase her exports by 10 per cent over the last six months.
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How to Study 7th Edition
What is the difference between like and as? These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful. The book is not suitable for elementary learners.
Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems for example, the present perfect or the use of the are covered in more than one unit.
For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book English Grammar in Use 4th Edition. English grammar in use raymond murphy Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises.A spokesperson said that the Minister does not intend to resign.
The United States has immense mineral wealth.
The Category of Number Adjectives as Modifiers of Nouns After the party, Roy and I walked in the garden.
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