of the mani pulite (“clean hands”) inquiries the question faded from the agenda of The legacy of mani pulite, therefore, has not been an improvement of public. Abstract: The article offers a survey of the main effects of judicial inquiry on corruption in Italy (the. “mani pulite” inquiry) and scandals on the political and party. PDF | The presence of widespread corruption in the political and The legacy of mani pulite, therefore, has not been an improvement of public ethics, but an.
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2 INTRODUCTION The expression “Mani Pulite” designates a period during the 90s in which several criminal investigations took place at a National level. During the first half of the s a pool of Italian judges carried out an investigation, named Mani Pulite. (literally clean hands), that led many public officials to be. Mani pulite was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version .
But an Italian only cares about the emotion. It is the movements, the physical effect of the language upon the blood which gives him supreme satisfaction. His mind is scarcely engaged at all. He is like a child, hearing and feeling without understanding.
It is the sensuous gratification he asks for. Lawrence hit the nail on the head regarding the Italian character of those days. I wonder though: has it changed much since? For the above reasons, not all followers of a mass party in Italy grasp what their party stands for.
In most instances one follows a party because of emotion, emulation, personal grievance or plain misunderstanding.
Only a small minority will really know what the policies of a party mean, what they are exactly and, what their effect might be.
Who was against Mussolini? Basically a small minority of leisure class thinkers and peasants, the only two classes of society that could afford a degree of cultural and intellectual autonomy, the first on account of their education, the latter on account of their wisdom. After Mussolini carried out much needed social reforms, spectacular public works, and great deeds of land reclamation, many from that minority of intellectuals and peasants also joined him.
When in the Duce conquered Abyssinia Ethiopia practically all the rest followed. Parts of Italy were behind Mussolini to the last man and woman. Neither the philosophy of Fascism, nor that of Marxism may be fully grasped by the masses; therefore these two movements must have something in common, which satisfies the psychological requirements of the people in these geographical areas.
I remember this transformation with an event that at the time shocked me a great deal, and even if I was only four years old at the time, I remember it like yesterday. My father thought that this cause was to be found in the psychopathology of bullying, essentially brought about by a feeling of sexual inadequacy. My father had just been sent home, the Italian army had been disbanded. I was fiddling around, making clay figurines, or looking for Roman spindle-whorls in the freshly removed soil.
When I found a spindle-whorl, my grandfather would fit it with a peg and turn it into a spinning top, trying it on a flat and smooth stone on the edge of the field.
Sometimes a prehistoric flint tool would emerge and my father would explain to me that that was the tip of a thunderbolt. One evening, the summer before, my father had come home from the field angry and agitated. That thief, I nearly caught him this time, I would have made him feel sorry for stealing our wheat! Con il barchetto; erano in tre e portavan via le biche del grano.
Si son buttati in Arno a nuoto, vestiti, e via come le lontre! Him exactly, that delinquent,the son of a fascist delinquent. There were three of them with the boat, stealing wheat sheaves. They plunged into the river all dressed, and away they swam as otters do! Within two minutes they had come ashore at Girone - Porco Pionono! Verranno a cercarti Pallino. Cursed be Pius the 9th! Now there will be trouble.
They will come to get you Pallino. Tell him to come!
Boia di Pionono! Cursed be Pius the 9th. Quando dissi quella parola?
Porco Pionono, quell'imbecille di' figliolo del fabbro, o' un mi dette un ceffone! Pionono cane! When I said that word?
I wonder what they will do to you. Pensa a questi figlioli!
Illicit Governance: Corruption, Scandal and Fraud
Think of these children! Piononaccio ladro! Shut up you! The matter seemed to end there; it was not spoken of again and appeared forgotten. Until that September day, in the field by the river bend. My grandfather first noticed two men coming forward across the field with a decisive stride, ducking the branches of the vines and olive trees.
Eccoci al conquibusse! Pallino the day of reckoning has come! Bocca chiusa e nervi calmi! Pionono, quello t'ammazza! Who is the other one? Pallucce had waited till the right time. Two months had elapsed since the Pettappollo incident, and he was coming now for the reckoning, with the support of a well know fascist murderer. But I was totally unaware of the goings on at that stage.
My father became red in the face. His powerful jaw muscles swelled showing he was clenching his teeth. The two men were drunk. Pallucce, the shorter, was dressed in brown and wore a beret. They stood, in front of us cross-armed and serious. Tu se' un'omo morto!
Prepare your coffin and kiss your wife and children. You are a dead man! Before I realized what was going on I saw a fist, like lightening, meeting Pallucce's mouth with a "smash" noise which I will never forget.
The next instant Pallucce was flat on the ground, in the position of Christ on the cross, his mouth full of blood. He lifted him up, but he was as limp as a marionette, his arm and head falling aside lifeless. He half turned back and uttered almost indistinctly: -Casella, questa tu la paghi! My grandfather smiled behind his moustache, resting his arms on the handle of the spade, which he had clenched tightly till now.
This time bring more to help you! A few days later I saw Pallucce at the grocers, both his lips were split and his speech was impaired by several stitches.
If this explains the success of Fascism in the mezzadria area and in the industrial north during the Mussolini era, it does not explain it in other contexts where it had different causes. Fascism in Rome, and in southern Italy, is primarily a post-war phenomenon, and it is the result of general widespread discontent with central government, accompanied by a strong catholic connotation, which prevent such discontent from expressing itself within the parties of the Left.
Only very recently, after the Left has ceased to be anti-clerical and atheistic, did it gain ground in the south. It shows a bullying component. It feeds on the feeling that someone, i. To regard the Lega Nord phenomenon as anything other than a form of collective psychopathology would be a grave misjudgment. Intellectuals who were genuine separatists left the Lega Nord before Bossi started displaying in full his loony character. Antonio Di Pietro, the judge who became the main figure of mani pulite, is a totally different figure from Mussolini, and yet he is the only man in Italian politics who, like Mussolini, can command sufficient popular support to destroy democracy.
Fortunately he neither possesses the intellect nor the ability to do such harm. Fini wants the corporate state. The Italians must watch Fini, he may just turn out to be the man they want…. There is documentary evidence to show that this was part of a deal between the Allies and Stalin.
Romania Mani Pulite
This being the case, the Communist Party never made any serious attempt to win a revolution in Italy yet, at times, it came incredibly close to being the largest party and to gaining power through a democratic process in which it said it believed, but did not really believe in.
The largest political party in Italy was the anti-Soviet Union party, i. It was a humble Sicilian priest, Luigi Sturzo, who created out of social concern, a Catholic Democratic movement, in parallel with the Sicilian Socialist movement of Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida, from onwards.
After the First World War the Catholic alliance created by the skinny Sicilian priest, emerged as a national political force. All these were disillusioned by the outcome of the war, but well disposed towards what was later to be identified as the West.
Both Andreotti and Scalfaro -former President of the Republic- were there, young and promising men in the eyes of the Vatican, staunch supporters of the Roman Catholic Church, of the Anglo-Americans, and of conservatism.
If Andreotti had been found guilty, what would all his friends and colleagues have said? They would only have had one choice, either to admit stupidity or complicity.
In the event Andreotti was found not guilty. He went to university to study economics and married upwards, in the local landed leisure class. After the War he was elected a senator for the Democrazia Cristiana and played his part in organizing several enactments of agrarian reforms. He was a rare bird. He was never highly regarded by his relations as he embodied the quintessential Christian Democrat.
Smoothly affable, keen on obtaining petty personal favours for his clients, boasting high moral standards, very accommodating and tolerant with the atheistic parties, he was nonetheless firm on the essential point of doctrine of the Church. He was convinced that the Christian Social Doctrine of Luigi Sturzo, which emanated straight from the Gospels, was a better one than that of Karl Marx, which originated from man himself.
I remember Beppino relentlessly offering positions and favours to my father and uncle, constantly perplexed that they should claim never to need any and never demand anything of him. Indeed Beppino had fought the Fascists and then, instead of joining a party of the left he had joined the Christian Democrats. Beppino was, however, innocent, an innocent and honest countryman who had been taken in by a sly, dishonest bunch, due to his Christian faith.
Now over eighty, but still quick and nimble, having lost none of his enthusiasm, still renting an office in Piazza della Repubblica, Beppino seemed never to give up.
As to myself, I had nothing to ask, as mine was a polite visit to an old and rather tiresome relation, an obligatory duty in respect of family memories. Believe it or not I met people who had made money with Beppino.
Romania Mani Pulite
Beppino himself never made any. He was too honest for that, but the wheels he oiled for others did produce rich results. Several years earlier Luciano G. Beppino had done the job, and now Luciano G. He owned a house by the Tyrrhenian shore, a boat safely moored within sight, and an aging but faithful and forgiving wife, with a good knowledge of cooking.
Beppino died a few years after my father, in , still scheming great plans to help this and that, including me, from his deathbed. The intrigues of the Christian Democrat Party, and of its associate, the Socialist Party of Bettino Craxi, are too notorious to get into.
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You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. The Roots of Tangentopoli. Marco Paneni. These investigations turned the lights on a system based on corruption, concussion and illicit party financing at the highest levels of the political and financial Italian world: Ministers, deputies, senators, entrepreneurs and even ex-prime ministers were involved.
The investigations were initially conducted by a pool from the Public Prosecutor Office of Milan Procura della Repubblica di Milano and, extended to the national territory, gave birth to a major public outrage and actually revolutionized the Italian political scene.
However, which were the main causes that brought this sick system to life? And why such a system would collapse only in the early 90s? The aim of this paper is to show that the roots of Tangentopoli can be traced back to the 50s, with the beginnings of the Republican history, when parties and the political system were starting to develop.
Firstly, I am going to analyze historical and political events that lead to the establishment of a system based on corruption and illegal financing to parties, and we will try to place those mechanisms inside the international context that strongly influenced the post-war period political decisions. Then I will try to understand how particracy managed to perpetuate in the following years and why it collapsed just right in the early 90s.
Finally, taking care not to oversimplify things, arguments will be provided to discuss why such a system could survive and develop in Italy. There was the need for internal political stability and the international context required the exclusion of the Italian Communist Party the so called conventio ad excludendum , alleged to be against the system and dangerous, in that it would have prevented the American aids provided by the Marshall Plan.
As Quagliarello states 2, the most relevant change was relying on the establishment of the mass party. As a matter of fact, the latter was the most suitable tool in order to ensure a constant interaction among socialist and catholic forces and institutions of the liberal-democratic kind. Moreover, establishing a mass party was a natural consequence of two historical events: In , the proportional formula was introduced to get rid of the Giolittism and favor the settlement of mass parties, experience rendered null by Fascism.
In light of this, the parties wanted to reconnect to proportional to give a sense of continuity to history. Furthermore, in such an ambiguous international scenario and with an internal political system where parties' strength was anything but taken for granted, the proportional allowed to "rule uncertainty", as Quagliarello would say3. Consequently, in the aftermath of the elections, no party could have resulted as the absolute winner and was for this reason that De Gasperi had to rely on centrism: Despite the proportional had already excluded the Fronte Popolare since the 's elections, De Gasperi introduced in a system of proportional representation with a majority 1 G.
The failing attempt of balancing the majority, had repercussions even on the validity of the party models. In facts, the majoritarian logic assumed a different party model, separate from the mass centered because structured in a vertical way with the Leader heading the parliamentary group, that in turn rules the party's structures. The political class was convinced that a modern democracy would have required parties strongly organized and territorially embedded, equipped with a wide apparatus of collateral organizations for leisure time and sports.
In this way the Togliatti's Party became the symbol of the modern party and therefore a model to hark back to. This evolution certainly led to significant financial consequences: As a consequence, the parties needed new forms of financing and then started to saddle the state with the costs of this horizontal organization either through the introduction of middle and senior managers in public offices, either through the development of procurement rules that allowed little control capabilities and many loopholes for the clientelistic management.
Postiglione, M. Iossa, Craxi: The administration of the Marshall Plan aids is a good example to demonstrate that already in the 50s the long arm of the parties controlled unlawfully the economy of the country in order to put in motion this big party machine that started demanding huge amounts of money.
It is now easily understandable that since the political parties were gradually occupying all the public offices, they could easily approach these funds. What is very important to stress is that the loans granted by the Marshall Plan were disbursed directly to companies who intended to import industrial machinery and equipment from the U. Yet, since the major industrial groups were all settled in the North of the peninsula, this procedure limited the amount of resources provided for the South, and this in turn increased the gap between the two areas see figure 1.
Nevertheless, it concentrated mainly on small works of local interest, thus increasing significantly the interference of the government and parties in the economy, with the negative consequence of limiting the investments for the future.
Finally, in this period the rule of political exchange put down its roots, namely the political class accorded favors to its electors for instance through tax payments exemption and the latter, in return, paid bribes Figure 1 — Missione americana ERP in Italia — Ufficio Stampa — Divisione informazione — Giugno either in the form of cash either through electoral consensus.
As a consequence, both the ruling parties and those of the opposition replaced the state in the management of public funds, dealing with large and small entrepreneurs and dividing the proceeds among themselves.
The INGIC Istituto Nazionale Gestione Imposte di Consumo scandal of , that brought to scene lights a system of payoffs and fixed tenders between the DC, that had been controlling the institute, and all the other parties is a rather explicit example of this trend6.With reference to public consumption and investment, the unit of measurement used is millions of Euro at constant prices.
The available seats were usually awarded so that government parties and opposition parties like the Italian Communist Party would get a share of power corresponding to their perceived influence in the government.
In this way the Togliatti's Party became the symbol of the modern party and therefore a model to hark back to. Backward induction method. Our empirical evidence supports the conclusions of the model. While Cusani himself was not a major figure, the connection of his crimes to the Enimont affair called in all the nation's major politicians as witnesses. In this model, the bureaucrat may decide not to ask for a bribe and to issue the licence to those entrepreneurs who submit a project, or else to ask for a bribe represented by b in exchange for the licence.
The estimated coefficient values vary from 0. A number of Milanese members of the Democratic Party of the Left were charged with corruption during their time as members of the PCI, but they were acquitted.
Finally, although in a lighter way, the Italian National Soccer team success at the World Cup, on the cry of "Campioni del mondo!
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