tips that deal with camera settings and performance. • Gaining pictures. • Avoid holding the camera one-handed while you shoot. A trick to get the steadiest. Avoid shooting the legs together; it has the tendency to make them look wider. Popping up the back leg is also a good trick for separating and defining them. as in street photography, but even so, one moment shooting Raw, which is another of my top tips, gives as easily come across as a trick instead of a nice .
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Nail Photography: Tips and Tricks. Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery 9(4) · October with TIPS AND. TECHNIQUES. FOR BETTER. PHOTOGRAPHY. FIRST PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BY JOSEPH NICÉPHORE NIÉPCE IN FRANCE. IN , ON A. Portrait photography: definition. Portrait photography or portraiture is photography of a person or group of people that displays the expression, personality.
It can be used, for example, to create a bright photo in low-light conditions or to create motion blur for moving elements in a photograph. Near-infrared images straight out of the camera do not always look good and are usually not as dramatic and beautiful as normally captured images.
Hence, a lot of post-processing is done to enhance these images. Here you can found plenty of theory and useful information about IR adaptors for flashlights. Among the resources is a huge collection of links related to invisible light photography.
Infrared photography Huge article with a number of useful links. Nearly complete list of IR filters and digital cameras that can be updated for IR shooting. Night Photography 60 Beautiful Examples Of Night Photography 60 amazing examples of night photography, created by some hard-working and dedicated photographers. Take a look at their websites and portfolios. The Nocturnes The Nocturnes is an organization dedicated to night photography. Founded by Tim Baskerville in San Francisco in , it has grown to become the premier source of information and education on night photography, as well as an international community for night photographers.
Lost America night photography Wandering the deserted backroads of the American Southwest, Troy Paiva has explored the abandoned underbelly of America since the s. Learn Night Photography Quick and dirty guide to defining exposure time for typical night subjects. Smoke Art Photography Smoke Photography and Smoke Art A round-up of some of the best examples of photos and artworks where smoke dominates. Smoke Art Photography - An Introduction This articles features smoke art photography tips from Stoffel De Roover; it describes the typical setup, important techniques and necessary adjustments for a perfect smoke art photo.
Smoke photography video tutorial Video tutorial on smoke photography. Macro Photography 25 Beautiful Macro Photography Shots A round-up of some truly revealing and inspiring macro photographs which are sure to have you marveling at the world around you. Macro Photography How to take close-up pictures of small things, by Philip Greenspun. Reversing Lenses for Macro Photography A guide to building a lens for extreme macro shooting.
Macro photography A round-up of gadgets that will help you move really close to your subject. But they are also useful for macro photography with compact cameras, too. Macro Photography Tutorial Short review on insect shooting, and amazing photos by M. Plonsky, PhD. Financial Strategies for Running Your Business.
The image that usually comes to mind is that of a young photographer making great money by taking photographs of some beautiful, scantily clad models on an exotic beach location for a benevolent client who really values creativity.
At its core, commercial photography is a service that involves making art for paying clients. The most important of all the parameters listed above is the ability to evolve.
According to business statistics, only one out of every ten new businesses will survive after five years. And the rules are simple: there are no rules, because no one can predict what the future will hold. But there are general principles and steps you can take to ensure that your business will be one of the exceptions to the statistics.
The first is to make sure that your products your images and the way you package them fit the markets in which you are trying to sell them. Second, you must find ways to expose your products to the customers who have the money and the desire to download them. In order to do that you need to differentiate your offerings from those of your competitors and be able to couch the differentiators as benefits and advantages for your intended customers. Finally, you have to make good financial decisions and understand the real value of your work to clients in order to maximize your profits and minimize your overall expenses.
Who am I, and why should you listen to me? I am a photographer who specializes in corporate photography and advertising, and I have been doing this work for several decades. I believe that my longevity and relative prosperity during these years are the re- Preface 5 sults of hard work, good marketing, and planning for a rainy day.
Creative Composition: Digital Photography Tips Techniques
The bottom line is that a successful photography business is all about the business. There are many good resources available to photographers who need specific information about contracts and forms, business structures, and accounting. This book will concentrate on presenting an overview of the industry, coupled with real world experiences. The spoils have always gone to the photographers who have built it, advertised it, sold it, and reinvented it. The earliest commercial photographers were those who mastered the nascent technology of the Daguerrotype one of the earliest forms of photography and sold them to a ready market of middle-class people who could not afford to have a painting of themselves or their loved ones done.
There was a pent-up demand for portraits and, in the era beginning in the s and extending to the s, many people learned the difficult craft and opened studios or traveled around the country making portraits. Many made small fortunes, and others lost money. Most of the practitioners eventually died from the mercury poisoning they were exposed to while coating the small silver plates that would serve as the finished art in their practices. An interesting complication of the early years of commercial photography is that there was no way to duplicate a Daguerrotype.
If a client wanted two pictures of himself or his loved ones, they needed to be created, one at a time, in the camera. This made each photograph a very limited edition, one of a kind.
This made each plate more valuable, but it also limited any future income that a photographer could derive from each assignment. Toward the end of the s several processes were introduced that allowed for the duplication of images by contact printing.
This allowed photographers to create multiple editions of albums that could be sold to collectors. One of the most famous examples of this expansion of enterprise can be found in the success of the Sketchbooks of the Civil War—handmade albums filled with original images—by American photographer Mathew Brady.
Left—Daguerrotype from the mid 19th century. Right—Early photographer, circa , with a plate camera. Brady and his crew took tremendous risks documenting the American Civil War and photographed several of its famous battles. The resulting photographs were packaged as albums and sold to collectors. The ability to duplicate, reprint, and resell or relicense images continues to be the secret to profitability today.
Though books and magazines were being produced in the time period, no one had mastered the technologies of half-tone printing that would enable the large-scale reproduction of photographs within them. The invention that led to the widespread growth of the photographic industry was the flexible film created by the Eastman Kodak company. Until their introduction of dried silver gelatin film, delivered on an acetate base in the s , films consisted of glass plates of various sizes that had to be wet-coated in the dark right before they were exposed in the camera.
It required incredible patience and technical ability. It also required a horse-drawn wagon, as the glass plates were very heavy and delicate. The introduction of packaged film meant that, for the first time, photographers could go out without chemistry sets and sheets of glass and make images that could be developed hours or days later.
This is the point at which photography, both as a hobby and a profession, began to take off. This led to a great demand for news, advertising, and Preface 7 Top—Late nineteenth-century paper print made by contact printing. Bottom—Late ninetenth-century paper print portrait. For the first time in history a photograph could be disseminated rapidly to millions of readers. Even with the advent of better films and equipment, photography required a fair amount of technical skill and know-how right up through the s.
A well-rounded photographer working as a generalist in a major regional market might shoot a wide assortment of assignments during a typical week, including lots of portraits for families and for business use, prod- 8 Commercial Photography Handbook ucts and buildings for businesses, and images for use in ads. Before , only national ads and editorial work were typically published in color. Commercial photographers at the time did not charge a day rate for advertising photography; rather, they charged a fee to produce the photographs and a usage fee that represented the value of the use for that image.
In the major markets it was typical for advertising photographers to charge a percentage of the total ad placement budget for their work. As the ad placement budgets grew so too did their fees! Editorial photographers charged for their work in a different way.
This was a guarantee against a space rate.
They were paid a certain amount for each photograph used in the final story, and these rates were based on the size of the image in the final magazine layout.
In this way the photographers whose talent shone brightest were rewarded in direct proportion to their skills. If a story was killed, they were still paid their day rate—their guarantee. From the s till the dawn of digital photography, commercial and editorial photographers worked consistently and profitably because, even though films got better and better, development more consistent, and testing methods more foolproof, photography still required a broad range of technical skills and large investments in cameras and lighting equipment.
These were sufficient barriers to entry to ensure that the middle and higher levels of the market were protected from the encroachment of casual hobbyists and rank amateurs. As corporations grew dramatically, so did their global reach and their budgets. During the last thirty years of the twentieth century, the American economy was largely strong, robust, and growing, and commercial photography went along for the ride.
During this time, the tools became more refined, and reproduction in major glossy magazines was much improved. By the middle of the s, most pros were shooting with medium format cameras and banks of very consistent and well-engineered studio electronic flash equipment in order to take full advantage of the improvements in the media.
Most worked in their own studios. Even though there were ups and downs in the economy, the overall market for most commercial photographers was positive. Then the paradigm shifted. The advent of readily available digital cameras and low-cost computers seemed to change the whole market.
The apparent quality of digital files and the ease of their production almost immediately decimated the bottom end of the commercial markets starting in as businesses realized that a lot of their advertising and communications materials and messages were moving to the Internet. The files needed for good reproduction at small sizes on the Web could be of much lower quality than the images required for high quality, four-color press printing.
Now a business could produce its own photographs, inexpensively, inhouse. Basic ID head shots, photographs of houses for sale, simple product shots, and more moved from a practice that nurtured entry-level photographers to extinction. Prior to the digital revolution, stock agencies held and maintained huge physical libraries of color slides and larger transparency films.
Requests for images would come from clients who would pay for both the research to find the right picture and the FedEx charges for shipping the images. Fees were based on usage and could range from hundreds of dollars to tens of thousands of dollars for a single use.
Now the clients could do their own online searches for images, retrieve the images as a web download, and pay the very low fees with a credit card at the end of the transaction. Not only has this change roiled the waters for commercial photographers, but the very agencies that engineered the original web-based stock photography market, Corbis and Getty Images, are quickly being eaten by their own offspring. Top—The Canon G2 was one of the early digital cameras that created files which competed with 35mm film.
Preface 9 With the supporting foundations of entry-level photography decimated, and with clients moving their marketing predominately to the Web, many are wondering whether photography as a profession will disappear entirely to be replaced by an amalgam of part-time practitioners, cheap stock, and homemade content. So, what does the market look like today? The dollar is at an all-time low. The bank industry is on the brink of failure.
At this writing, inflation is at its worst in twenty-nine years. The shortterm prognosis from the federal government is grim. And amateur photographers are crowding into the market and begging to work for free! So, what does a commercial photographer do when confronted with all this bad news?
Hopefully you will do the same.
Because, going forward, there are no guarantees. Because in the real estate market the people who make money reliably are the ones who build or download good rental properties and lease out the use of these rental properties, year after year—always at a profit.
If you sell the house, you make a one-time profit. If you lease the house, you make a profit year after year, and at the end of your career you have a portfolio full of appreciating properties assets. Photographers can and should apply the same model to their businesses. They should get paid to create an image which the photographer owns and then license that image for additional fees for specific uses and specific lengths of time.
Any additional uses or extensions of time should be paid for just like the rental of a house. Before you roll your eyes and assume that clients will demand ownership of all the images and all the rights, be aware that the above description is just the way the bulk of the advertising photography market has worked for decades and decades.
If you need analogies and examples from other industries you need look no further than a good ole American business called Microsoft. This image was shot in and has been sold many times since. If I had signed away all rights I would have gotten a one-time fee that would have been a fraction of its real value! Shot on 4x5 inch color transparency film.
You have been licensed the right to use the software on your personal machine only. It is illegal to share it or even load it on another machine concurrently unless you download additional licenses. This is the model that most truly successful photographers have adapted. They license specific rights while keeping the copyright.
Their images are their intellectual property. You are wrong. Pricing for the short term will be hazardous to your long-term business health.
You deserve a decent house, a reliable car, health insurance, vacations, and all the other things that make life comfortable. The goal is not to make some money from selling your photography but to make lots of money licensing your images again and again.
Every client has a potential use for your images. Understand what the inclusion of your photo into a project brings to the table. Preface 1. Many in the creative industries routinely couch the relationship between clients and themselves as an ad- versarial one. They describe their negotiations as heated battles where each side attempts to conquer the other. Some photographers even seem convinced that clients are out to squelch their creative output and force photographers to create staid and boring work instead.
So, what does this adversarial point of view download you? Generally ulcers, migraines, early death, and little else. I hate to be the one to tell you this, but clients are the most important single thing in your whole business. Your customers are more important than the latest cameras and lenses and much more important than that brewing debate about lighting styles on your favorite blog. They are even more important than the overall economy.
They are your sole financial resource. They make everything you eventually do in your business possible. Knowledge is profit. Here are the four most important things I do to build my relationship with clients: 1. Understand their industry and their position within that industry.
Build my relationship with the person I collaborate with. This can be as simple as sending interesting articles about intersections between our industries articles in Photo District News or Advertising Age , clipping newspaper comics that are relevant to their industries, or pointing them to interesting webcasts. It can escalate to monthly lunches where you meet and discuss big issues, present fun new work, and generally get to know your client as an individual.
Anthropological research has shown time and time again that sharing food creates bonds between humans. This can be especially important with clients who are constrained by their companies to solicit competitive bids.
In a surprising number of cases you will build genuine friendships that will last over the long course of your career. Go into every negotiation looking for ways to sell your vision or style without alienating those you should be collaborating with. If you feel you are always right or that you always have the best solution for every project, you need to take a few moments to consider that you may be wrong!
In the past, I would have vehemently argued my position in many instances. I have since learned to listen first for all the details. I have a little note attached to my computer. It has helped me retain many clients over the years and has helped me to generate more profits. The most important single thing you need to get across to your clients is that you bring a unique vision and a unique set of attributes to your projects. If you compete just on price and you offer the same styles and types of images as everyone else, your potential clients will be inclined to look at all photographers as commodities.
When a product or service becomes a commodity an interchangeable product like wheat or machine screws the clients immediately reduce the parameters of their selection process to price.
You must have powerful differentiators that add value to your photography for clients. Only then will you succeed financially. You might even make some nice friends.
Shot for a story on BBQ that ran in Tribeza magazine.
studio-lighting-techniques-photography-pdf.pdf - Studio
Editorial photography provides the opportunity to try new creative approaches. This was done with two offcamera, battery-powered flashes. Selling Images or Licensing Usage Rights? Take the example of the wedding photographer.
His choices are much like the difference between an all-you-can-eat buffet restaurant and a fine dining establishment. In the first restaurant your customers pay a fixed price at the door and then pile their plates high.
Every return through the buffet line is money down the drain for you. When you consider that most allyou-can-eat restaurants exist near the bottom of the restaurant food chain and that their profit margins are painfully thin, you can see that this pricing model can be quite precarious.
Each product is priced separately. Each product comes with its own profit margin. At each point in the dinner experience the fine dining restaurant has the potential to increase sales and generate profit. The fine dining restaurant has to consistently make a much more compelling creative product, and it has to communicate the extra value of the creative product to the correct target market of consumers. The easiest way to stay in business? Attract highly affluent clients who crave a unique and creative approach to the product or service in question and allow them to add more and more products to create more and more profit.
It is exactly the same in photography. The top of the list for products is design, followed by features. Design and features are the reasons people paid a premium for products such as iPhones and iPods from Apple. Style and reputation are the reasons people flock to wedding photographers like Denis Reggie and Hanson Fong. Consumers want, and are willing to pay for, the styles they like. Once you market based on just about anything else, like price, you become a commodity.
When you become a commodity the con- Below—This image series was used in print ads and mailers for a high-end lakefront condominium project. The creative director and I scouted the project beforehand and planned each shot in detail. Developers depend on great photography to help sell multimillion-dollar properties. Getting good food shots during regular dinner service requires making quick decisions as well as an ability to previsualize the effects of your lighting.
The successful wedding photographer charges a fee for the creation of his images and extra fees for the various uses of his images.
An album filled with photographs commands a certain price. Prints command an additional price.
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The same images can be sold over and over again to guests and families online via Pictage, Photo Reflect, or Smugmug.
Over time the passive income from additional products usages can be like the passive income of stock dividends, with fat checks arriving regularly. I often meet for coffee with a professional portrait photographer. His sitting fees are around the average for our market in Austin, but his print prices which 16 Commercial Photography Handbook reflect his Photoshop skills and his skilled use of very high resolution cameras, as well as his social connections and location are quite a bit higher.
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His average sitting lasts an hour or two. At the other end of the spectrum is a local photographer who sells his work by taking images with his modest digital camera and then putting JPEGs on a disc. He wants to give the images to the client and never see that pesky client again. What a difference.
In the advertising business there is a great deal of pressure to sign work-for-hire agreements, which give a client all the photographs you create and an unrestricted right to use them wherever he or she wants, with no additional payment to you. The client would even have the right to sell the images as stock to anyone in the market. Think philosophically about the ramifications of your business creating content for the business model that makes yours irrelevant!
For more information about pricing and licensing models you should look at the materials on the subject that are available on the American Society of Media Photographers ASMP web site: www. Also, check the books recommended in the resource chapter at the end of this book. There are a number of protocols that transcend every industry. Most of these should be basic common sense. The problem is that these kinds of best practices are taught in business schools but not in many photography programs.
Here are the three best practices as they relate to photography as a business: Have a Signed Contract. First, always have a signed contract between photographer and client before you start any project. A contract is not an adversarial document; rather, it is a summary of all the things you covered in your negotiations leading up to being offered a project.
It should cover the basics: What is the service you will be delivering? What are Below—These two images were shot as part of a campaign for the Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce in preparation for a high-tech trade show.
The images were used in a multi-panel mailer and also for large display panels. What rights are you licensing? How much will you be paid for your production and for the rights you are licensing? When and how will you be paid? Every time there is a change to the project e.
These forms need not be complex. In fact, most problems that arise between clients and suppliers have nothing to do with dishonesty or failure to perform; they arise because, by the very nature of most verbal agreements, each party remembers the agreement differently. A good, simple contract keeps everyone on the same page and gives you a reference to return to time and again.
So, with a contract issued, every parameter of the job and the expectations of both parties are spelled out in enough detail to prevent ambiguity, and both parties get a signed copy.
In the United States, all people have the right to control the use of their own likeness in any and all commercial applications. This guarantees that every noncelebrity has a solid right to privacy. There are exceptions. If you work for a newspaper, magazine, or other editorial outlet that informs the public, you can use a newsworthy photo in that outlet without a release. There are exceptions to the editorial exemption.
If you take a photograph of someone in a place where they have reasonable expectation of privacy, you might not be able to make the editorial argument stick. Example: A stripper slapping the mayor of your city at a restaurant open to the public is fair game. A stripper in the stall of a bathroom is not fair game! The basic rule of thumb is always unless you are covering hard news to get a model release.
A model release can be a simple document like the one on the facing page you can pick these up in most photography stores , or it can be very complex. Most professional models and actors who are represented by agencies will provide their own releases, which carefully explain what rights are being licensed and for how long.
If a model or actor is professionally represented, they will generally refuse to sign any release other than one prepared by their agent. This protects them from unanticipated uses that might damage their careers either by overexposing them or from competing uses. All negatives and positives, together with the prints, shall constitute your property, solely and completely.
Down the road she is discovered for the incredible talent that she is, and a large company decides to use her as a spokesperson. Therefore, they pass on the first model and start the search all over again. I think blanket releases without very healthy financial compensation are morally wrong, though models and photographers use them all the time.
I go back to the idea of a creative team being a collaborative model. I like to have models sign releases for specific uses.
If new uses arise, I think models and other talent should have the right to share in the results of our collaborative efforts. Mine is not a mainstream viewpoint.If you have included the skyline of a city you are okay without a release.
The advent of readily available digital cameras and low-cost computers seemed to change the whole market. While the sony a has a crazy good af system that most of you will enjoy right out of the box, there is something to be said for the nostalgic act of using manual focus in particular situations, such as street photography or occasionally when working from a tripod.
Gopro white tips i will certainly provide you all my pointers and techniques on ways to do this. You might not be able to depend on fashion alone to supply all of your income, but you could get a good bit of experience shooting locally.
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