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environment PDF Anderson's Business Law and the Legal Environment, Comprehensive. Volume Author: David P. Twomey, Marianne M. offered in word, pdf, ppt, txt, zip, kindle, as well as rar. anderson's business law and the legal environment, comprehensive edition (pdf) by marianne. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Professor David Twomey has been a member of the Anderson's Business Law and the Legal Environment, Comprehensive Volume 22nd Edition, Kindle Edition. by.

Paradoxically, it is a unifying feature, not something that separates the citizens of a country. In the diversity of American folklife we find a marketplace teeming with the exchange of traditional forms and cultural ideas, a rich resource for Americans".

Definition of folk[ edit ] The folk of the 19th century, the social group identified in the original term "folklore" , was characterized by being rural, illiterate and poor.

They were the peasants living in the countryside, in contrast to the urban populace of the cities. Only toward the end of the century did the urban proletariat on the coattails of Marxist theory become included with the rural poor as folk.

The common feature in this expanded definition of folk was their identification as the underclass of society. By the s it was understood that social groups , i.

The first group that each of us is born into is the family, and each family has its own unique family folklore. As a child grows into an individual, its identities also increase to include age, language, ethnicity, occupation, etc. Each of these cohorts has its own folklore, and as one folklorist points out, this is "not idle speculation… Decades of fieldwork have demonstrated conclusively that these groups do have their own folklore.

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For the most part it will be learned by observation, imitation, repetition or correction by other group members. This informal knowledge is used to confirm and re-inforce the identity of the group.

It can be used both internally within the group to express their common identity, for example in an initiation ceremony for new members. Or it can be used externally to differentiate the group from outsiders, like a folkdance demonstration at a community festival. Significant to folklorists here is that there are two opposing but equally valid ways to use this in the study of a group: you can start with an identified group in order to explore its folklore, or you can identify folklore items and use them to identify the social group.

Individual researchers identified folk groups which had previously been overlooked and ignored. One major example of this is found in an issue of "The Journal of American Folklore", published This edition is dedicated exclusively to articles on women's folklore, with approaches that were not coming from a man's perspective.

Genres: the lore of folklore[ edit ] Individual folklore artifacts are commonly classified as one of three types: material, verbal or customary lore.

For the most part self-explanatory, these categories include physical objects material folklore , common sayings, expressions, stories and songs verbal folklore , and beliefs and ways of doing things customary folklore. There is also a fourth major subgenre defined for children's folklore and games childlore , as the collection and interpretation of this fertile topic is peculiar to school yards and neighborhood streets. That said, each artifact is unique; in fact one of the characteristics of all folklore artifacts is their variation within genres and types.

It is however just this required variation that makes identification and classification of the defining features a challenge. And while this classification is essential for the subject area of folkloristics, it remains just labeling, and adds little to an understanding of the traditional development and meaning of the artifacts themselves.

Folklore artifacts are never self-contained, they do not stand in isolation but are particulars in the self-representation of a community. Different genres are frequently combined with each other to mark an event.

Field issues of respect, reciprocity, deciding who owns the data and others are central to Ethnography Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 95 From the many sources collected, the ethnographer analyzes the data for a description of the culture-sharing group, themes that emerge from the group and an overall interpretation Wolcott, b.

The researcher begins to compile a detailed description of the culture-sharing group, by focusing on a single event, on several activities, or on the group over a prolonged period of time.

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Forge a working set of rules or generalizations as to how the culture-sharing group works as the final product of this analysis. The final product is a holistic cultural portrait of the group that incorporates the views of the participants emic as well as the views of the researcher etic. It might also advocate for the needs of the group or suggest changes in society.

It is conducted in the settings in which real people actually live, rather than in laboratories where the researcher controls the elements of the behaviors to be observed or measured. It is personalized.

It is conducted by researchers who are in the day-to-day, face-to-face contact with the people they are studying and who are thus both participants in and observers of the lives under study. It is multifactorial. It is conducted through the use of two or more data collection techniques - which may be qualitative or quantitative in nature - in order to get a conclusion.

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It requires a long-term commitment i. The exact time frame can vary from several weeks to a year or more. It is inductive. It is conducted in such a way to use an accumulation of descriptive detail to build toward general patterns or explanatory theories rather than structured to test hypotheses derived from existing theories or models.

It is dialogic. It is holistic. It is conducted so as to yield the fullest possible portrait of the group under study. It can also be used in other methodological frameworks, for instance, an action research program of study where one of the goals is to change and improve the situation. These can include participant observation, field notes, interviews, and surveys.

Interviews are often taped and later transcribed, allowing the interview to proceed unimpaired of note-taking, but with all information available later for full analysis.

Secondary research and document analysis are also used to provide insight into the research topic. In the past, kinship charts were commonly used to "discover logical patterns and social structure in non-Western societies".

In order to make the data collection and interpretation transparent, researchers creating ethnographies often attempt to be "reflexive". Reflexivity refers to the researcher's aim "to explore the ways in which [the] researcher's involvement with a particular study influences, acts upon and informs such research". This factor has provided a basis to criticize ethnography. Traditionally, the ethnographer focuses attention on a community, selecting knowledgeable informants who know the activities of the community well.

Participation, rather than just observation, is one of the keys to this process.

Ybema et al. Ethnographic research can range from a realist perspective, in which behavior is observed, to a constructivist perspective where understanding is socially constructed by the researcher and subjects. Research can range from an objectivist account of fixed, observable behaviors to an interpretive narrative describing "the interplay of individual agency and social structure. One example of an image is how an individual views a novel after completing it.

The physical entity that is the novel contains a specific image in the perspective of the interpreting individual and can only be expressed by the individual in the terms of "I can tell you what an image is by telling you what it feels like. Effectively, the idea of the image is a primary tool for ethnographers to collect data. The image presents the perspective, experiences, and influences of an individual as a single entity and in consequence, the individual will always contain this image in the group under study.

Differences across disciplines[ edit ] The ethnographic method is used across a range of different disciplines, primarily by anthropologists but also occasionally by sociologists.

Cultural studies , Occupational Therapy , European ethnology , sociology , economics , social work , education , design , psychology , computer science , human factors and ergonomics , ethnomusicology , folkloristics , religious studies , geography , history , linguistics , communication studies , performance studies , advertising , accounting research , nursing , urban planning , usability , political science , [23] social movement , [24] and criminology are other fields which have made use of ethnography.

Cultural and social anthropology[ edit ] Cultural anthropology and social anthropology were developed around ethnographic research and their canonical texts, which are mostly ethnographies: e.

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Cultural and social anthropologists today place a high value on doing ethnographic research. The typical ethnography is a document written about a particular people, almost always based at least in part on emic views of where the culture begins and ends.

Using language or community boundaries to bound the ethnography is common. Unlike static PDF Anderson's Business Law and the Legal Environment, Comprehensive Volume solution manuals or printed answer keys, our experts show you how to solve each problem step-by-step. No need to wait for office hours or assignments to be graded to find out where you took a wrong turn.

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By the turn into the 20th century the number and sophistication of folklore studies and folklorists had grown both in Europe and North America. Types of information typically needed in ethnography are collected by going to the research site, respecting the daily lives of individuals at the site and collecting a wide variety of materials.

The researcher begins to compile a detailed description of the culture-sharing group, by focusing on a single event, on several activities, or on the group over a prolonged period of time. After the German states were invaded by Napoleonic France, Herder's approach was adopted by many of his fellow Germans who systematized the recorded folk traditions and used them in their process of nation building. Daniel Kortschak, Terry Bertozzi, et al. The product of this is mainly verbal explanations, where statistical analysis and quantification play a subordinate role.

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