This is the MySQL Tutorial from the MySQL Reference Manual. For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists, . not a liated with o cial MySQL® group(s) or company(s). Section Full Outer Join. 54 Please feel free to share this PDF with anyone for free. MySQL Tutorial in PDF - Learn MySQL from basic to advanced covering database programming clauses command functions administration queries and usage.
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This tutorial will give you a quick start to MySQL and make you comfortable This tutorial is prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basics-to- . MySQL computerescue.info Hands on Lab Manual. Get the Technical Know-how to Succeed with the World's Most Popular Open Source. Summary of MySQL Commands Used in this Tutorial 2. . CREATE DATABASE databaseName " to display the full command and check these default values.
First of all, we need to define those two similar concepts and other related things: Internationalization is when you organize your code so it can be adapted to different languages or regions without refactorings. This action is usually done once - preferably, at the beginning of the project, or else you will probably need some huge changes in the source!
Localization happens when you adapt the interface mainly by translating contents, based on the i18n work done before. It usually is done every time a new language or region needs support and is updated when new interface pieces are added, as they need to be available in all supported languages.
Pluralization defines the rules required between distinct languages to interoperate strings containing numbers and counters. For instance, in English when you have only one item, it is singular, and anything different from that is called plural; plural in this language is indicated by adding an S after some words, and sometimes changes parts of it.
In other languages, such as Russian or Serbian, there are two plural forms in addition to the singular - you may even find languages with a total of four, five or six forms, such as Slovenian, Irish or Arabic.
This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization.
The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext. It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software.
It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools. It is about Gettext we will be talking here.
Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source Other tools There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n. Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats. It uses array formats for message.
Does not provide a message extractor, but does provide advanced message formatting via the intl extension including pluralized messages.
It also includes view helpers, and locale-aware input filters and validators. However, it has no message extractor.
Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases: Laravel supports basic array files, has no automatic extractor but includes a lang helper for template files. Yii supports array, Gettext, and database-based translation, and includes a messages extractor.
MySQL for Absolute Beginners
It is backed by the Intl extension, available since PHP 5. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter.
Gettext Installation You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum.
The next three rows are the three book records in our table. Since a single column in a table holds all the different record values for a specific field, fields are also commonly known as columns.
Similarly, the records in a table are commonly called rows. So how do you actually create this table in MySQL?
To do this, you need to create a schema for the table. MySQL will then carry out all further operations on this database. When you delete a table like this, any data in the table is gone forever!
MySQL Tutorial in PDF
This statement creates a new table called books. This is a special type of field that assigns a unique numeric ID to each book record in the table. We give the field an int unsigned type, which can hold large, positive integer numbers.
We give it a varchar type, which means it can hold a text string up to characters long. As with the title field, we give it the varchar type. We give this field a decimal 10,2 type, which means that the field can hold a digit decimal number, with 2 of the digits sitting to the right of the decimal point.You will find your happiness without trouble! Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats.
It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. Each tutorial has practical examples with SQL script and screenshots available. This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization.
That msgid is the same used throughout all your. This statement creates a new table called books.
When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed.