Further reproduction prohibited without permission. A World Without ISLAM. Graham E Fuller. Foreign Policy; Jan/Feb ; ; Research Library pg. Graham Fuller. A World Without Islam. London: Little, Brown and Company, . Article (PDF Available) · January with Reads. Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. In this wide-ranging historical text, Fuller, former A World Without Islam - Kindle edition by Graham E. Fuller.
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There Is No Preview Available For This Item. This item does not appear to have any files that can be experienced on computerescue.info Newsweek Interactive, LLC. A World without Islam. Author(s): Graham E. Fuller. Source: Foreign Policy, No. (Jan. - Feb., ), pp. What if Islam never existed? To some, it's a comforting thought: no clash of civilizations, no holy wars, no computerescue.info what if that weren't the case at all?.
The culture of the Orthodox Church differs sharply from the Western post-Enlightenment ethos. As a culthe West most immediately associates with Islam tural and moral force.
Iranians resist the British tional resistance among those peoples was hard to and Americans. Tamils achieve in the absence of any common ethnic or resist the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka.
That is a key reason why the United It is not an entirely peaceful and comforting picture. Islam has been a unifynation of the strategic space. The Middle East would In a world without Islam.
Still riven by major ethnic and even sectarian Asian. It would. There would not have remained a shared culgious symbol.
Palestine would still burn. Byzantine Empire of more than 2.
The question might Western dictates. We would still see Palestinians resist Jews. If the grievances of aging them to feel part of a broader Muslim civilizathe Middle East. Kashmiris resist Indians. Chechens resist Russians. This siege is not about modernity. A united. Western imperialism still have a glorious historical model—the great would have found the task of dividing.
That alone furnishes it with great emotional anger at U.
Islam affected political geography as well: If been wrapped up in a different banner. Even if This. Islam has helped bridge ethnic today? In the bluntest of terms. As a culture of the Muslim world—the drive to create a global universal faith. Tibetans resist the Chinese. Europeans were and psychologically suspicious of. Islam has had no independent impact on the Middle it is about the unceasing Western quest for domiEast or East-West relations.
States now finds itself breaking its teeth in the Muslim world. It has been invaded repeatedly by Western imperialist armies. Iran would still be be instead. Religion is one such ideology. Saudi rulers under U. To the al Qaeda hijackers. It has informed Macedonian terrorists were widely feared all across the Basque eta. In an era when against Americans. The question might be instead.
But religion provides the best one of separatist groups. And why did key Islamic thinkers in the early 20th century speak of the need to embrace to glorify their cause. The Habash. Sri Lankan saders. American boots on the ground in Saudi Arabia. Dozens of major assassinations in the late 19th and early ing Path in Peru. Of these. Nationalism is even better. The international class struggle for jus terrorist attacks took place in the European tice provides a good rallying point.
If Islam hates modernity. Marxism did. According to Europol. Islam functioned as a magnifying glass in the sun. Jewish guerrillas used Is it so hard to imagine then. Nationalism is Union in As radical groups articulate grievances in our globalized age. Only 1 was carried its cause. Class struggle provides a modernity even while protecting I s l a m i c c ul tur e? Os a m a b i n good rallying point. In such cases.
And religion everywhere can still serve out by Islamists. But these figures reveal the broad idedifferent religion. To be sure. It is an ideology that India. Mau Mau terrorists ism. In the face of these tensions between East and West. Faced with timeless issues like these. Europeans didn't care whether they were invading and taking over Christian countries, Buddhist countries, Muslim countries, whatever.
They went there and colonized and ran them and created huge legacies of resentment and sparking wars of national liberation.
So nothing special - specially religious there, except again, Islam was a great banner for many Muslims who were struggling against French or English or Dutch or other forms of foreign European imperialism. Nevertheless, this does cut both ways. FULLER: Yes, but I think if you the number of times when you find Eastern armies coming into the West, I mean, the Ottoman Empire got up to the gates of Vienna at one point and were repulsed, and they were in Spain for a very long period of time - by the way, which was one of the high points of Christian-Jewish-Muslim cooperation, very high civilization.
But apart from that, it was mostly the other way around. The West by then was getting much stronger and able to send its armies there. And, you know, Neal, in terms of violence, it's interesting to consider, the really most hideous killings of human beings in the history of humanity took place in the 20th century and largely driven by Europeans, who started World War I, World War II, picked these conflicts all around the world, Marxism and Leninism, Hitler, Stalin, you know, not even any religion in all of this, was - much of it, it was atheist imperial drive in which millions, you know, maybe up to million people killed in all of those events.
I mean, the Europeans carried their war to the Middle East and wanted various states to line up with them against the Germans or against later in the Cold War against the Russians.
A World Without Islam
But, you know, you're hard put to find anything remotely in the annals of Islam that show the numbers of people butchered, as were butchered by the 20th in the 20th century by Western Europeans. Now, look, I'm not saying that Western Europeans are inherently more evil. Not - they are not. Nobody is inherently more evil.
But they created and developed and perfected the weapons of mass destruction going back hundreds of years which gave them an advantage in the ability to impose their authority absolutely on most of the rest of the world. And that's still true. What would we wanted to find out what you think about the thesis. Would the world be different, largely different, if Islam had never existed?
Email us, talk npr. And also you can join the conversation at our website. We'll also be talking with Graham Fuller about the implications of his thesis for U.
Stay with us. I'm Neal Conan. I'm Neal Conan in Washington. Go to npr. You can also join the conversation. Our phone number, Email is talk npr. Let's go to Drew. Drew's on the line with us from Richmond. I was just wondering if you guys could discuss the legacy of colonialism in the Middle East, specifically the unintelligible agreement and how the borders that were drawn weren't necessarily sustainable to the Middle -people of the Middle East and weren't drawn regarding their best interest.
I mean, this is one of the many legacies. I think Drew put his finger right on it. One of the many legacies of Western imperialism was not only to conquer and occupy and control most of the rest of the world for long periods of time but to redraw the boundaries, and that is - those are that has created problems and legacies we're still living with.
I mean, the Arab world in particular was divided up very, very artificially, along lines that were more reflective of agreements between British and French interests than they were with the populations who lived there or the ethnic or tribal makeup of it.
So that is what the region is still studying ph - somewhat artificial states, and then run by dictators who were established by the West who are perceived as pro-Western and pliable to Western interests.
So that's still a burning issue and has not changed in a number of Middle Eastern countries today. CONAN: And I'm not going to argue with that, but to go back just a little bit further, it's important not to overlook the effect of the previous empire in the region, that's the Ottomans.
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The but - and it's interesting that the major region in which opposition came to the Ottoman Empire was in the Balkans, and that was an area that was largely Christian, either Orthodox or Catholic, and they didn't get along, by the way, particularly well.
But in terms of the broader Muslim world, there was not a great deal of revolt. There were periodic dissatisfactions, but most Muslims felt that they were part of a greater empire, Muslim empire, one of the biggest in history. So they were fairly content to be part of it.
Later on nationalism developed. You had Arab nationalism, Turkish nationalism.
These are Western ideas that I'm not sure have really helped the region to unify when you have ethnic groups at each others' throats. DREW: Thank you very much. PETE: Just a quick question.
You know, as far as, you know, the conflicts, would the world be different without Islam? You know, I don't believe so. Religion is religion.
But that being said, we're currently in, you know, two wars, Iraq and Afghanistan. We're trying to stop threats against the United States from the Muslim world. You know, out of all the programs I've heard on this topic, the Middle East and everything that goes along with that, no one's ever asked the question or answered, you know, why is there such disdain from that part of the world towards the United States, and what would we as the United States have to do to get that part of the world or the people behind, you know, the attacks and what they want to do to us to leave us alone?
But there's a long, long history, even of the U. There's a long list of all of this. So the region would say stay out of our area, leave us alone, let us try to build our own states. But now, it wasn't it's not only just intervention, it's warfare with, you know, hundreds of thousands of people being killed, creating resentments, rage. It's supporting the most extremist elements. Now, this is a God-given event for Osama bin Laden, who saw these wars as the quickest way to get, to win support of the local population in this so-called struggle against American imperialism.
So the short answer is - rather than us telling them to get out of our face, they would be telling us the same, get out of our area. Leave us alone. PETE: If we were to leave Iraq and Afghanistan and download their oil on the free market but still maintain our support of Israel, would that be a means to an end, or is it the fact that, you know, we, you know, we just stand behind Israel, kind of like the 51st state, that causes all the problems?
I mean, almost nobody at this point, no rational people in the Middle East, are saying that Israel doesn't exist or shouldn't exist. But they do want a settlement of the Palestinian problem and occupation of Palestine that's been going on since I mean, this is over 40 years now. This one of the longest occupations ever. But apart from that, if we could get that problem settled fairly and not simply taking Israel's side, then I think slowly, bit by bit, you'd find the area definitely calming down.
There's all kinds of ways in which we could spend a fraction of the money that's being spent on losing wars to improve, you know, health, schooling, education, all of these things which I think would transform the area.
Pete, we want to give somebody else a chance. Thanks very much for the phone call, appreciate it. The issue is a religious belief system that actively promotes suicidal attacks on noncombatants as a path to heaven. And its not a reflection of Islam as a whole, nor even is it the true face of Islam. So we need to acknowledging that these groups do not represent the entirety of Muslims, and work to understand why they feel so much animosity, what has driven them to this point.
Just because the way they choose to express themselves isn't one we find very appropriate doesn't mean they don't have legitimate issues that need to be addressed, and the author goes well into those issues. He does well to show us our need to understand that religion is just one ideology that is abused and used for the benefit and advancements of other causes. In a time when people want to blame all the problems on a religion they don't understand is important for someone to remind us of that.
Just because these extremists use the system of ideals that is Islam for their own means in a way that completely ignores some of the major principles of the Islamic faith does not mean that Islam itself is the problem. We need to take a step back and try to identify the real motivation, the real source of the problem, in order to understand how to handle the situation and to find a solution, rather than continue to be sucked into mere perpetuation.So it's a complex story.
This exceptional inquiry finally sustains a quite specific—and controversial—set of recommendations for reframing American foreign policy. So - but this is not to say that various religions at many - at various times in history have not broken their own commandments. Lenin and Stalin. And there was a special agreement made that under these - with the clerics of Saudi Arabia that, under very special circumstances, non-Muslim troops are allowed to come in to help kill other Muslims.
If the area were Christian, would the region be any more accepting of big, Western oil companies trying to come in a trying to dominate those things?
Latin America was riddled with dictators.
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